Dan and Ephraim not mentioned in Revelation, פרשת ויחי, Parashat Vayechi, Bits of Torah Truths – Digging Deeper

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This week’s Torah portion, Parashat Vayechi, concludes the book of Bereshit / Genesis. In this last Torah portion, we read how before Jacob died he spoke prophetically over each of his sons, (Bereshit / Genesis 49) then his children buried him in Canaan in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite that Abraham had purchased. (Bereshit / Genesis 49:29) We read on how his brothers were afraid and Joseph said that He was in the place of God, that he forgave them of their sins against him. We read then of Joseph’s death at 110 years old and his command to bury his body in the same location as his father, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

While reading through this week’s Torah portion, there are a few things that jump out of the text from the blessing that Jacob had spoken over his brothers. The two brothers we are interested in are Dan and Joseph specifically:

Dan (49:16-18)
דָּ֖ן יָדִ֣ין עַמּ֑וֹ כְּאַחַ֖ד שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ Dan shall govern his people, As one of the tribes of Israel.17 יְהִי־דָן֙ נָחָ֣שׁ עֲלֵי־דֶ֔רֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹ֖ן עֲלֵי־אֹ֑רַח הַנֹּשֵׁךְ֙ עִקְּבֵי־ס֔וּס וַיִּפֹּ֥ל רֹכְב֖וֹ אָחֽוֹר׃ Dan shall be a serpent by the road, A viper by the path, That bites the horse’s heels So that his rider is thrown backward 18 לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהוָֽה׃ I wait for Your deliverance, O LORD!

Joseph (49:22-26)
בֵּ֤ן פֹּרָת֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף בֵּ֥ן פֹּרָ֖ת עֲלֵי־עָ֑יִן בָּנ֕וֹת צָעֲדָ֖ה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר׃ Joseph is a wild ass, A wild ass by a spring —Wild colts on a hillside. 23 וַֽיְמָרֲרֻ֖הוּ וָרֹ֑בּוּ וַֽיִּשְׂטְמֻ֖הוּ בַּעֲלֵ֥י חִצִּֽים׃ Archers bitterly assailed him; They shot at him and harried him. 24 וַתֵּ֤שֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן֙ קַשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיָּפֹ֖זּוּ זְרֹעֵ֣י יָדָ֑יו מִידֵי֙ אֲבִ֣יר יַעֲקֹ֔ב מִשָּׁ֥ם רֹעֶ֖ה אֶ֥בֶן יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ Yet his bow stayed taut, And his arms were made firm By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob— There, the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel— 25 מֵאֵ֨ל אָבִ֜יךָ וְיַעְזְרֶ֗ךָּ וְאֵ֤ת שַׁדַּי֙ וִיבָ֣רְכֶ֔ךָּ בִּרְכֹ֤ת שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ מֵעָ֔ל בִּרְכֹ֥ת תְּה֖וֹם רֹבֶ֣צֶת תָּ֑חַת בִּרְכֹ֥ת שָׁדַ֖יִם וָרָֽחַם׃ The God of your father who helps you, And Shaddai who blesses you With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that couches below, Blessings of the breast and womb. 26 בִּרְכֹ֣ת אָבִ֗יךָ גָּֽבְרוּ֙ עַל־בִּרְכֹ֣ת הוֹרַ֔י עַֽד־תַּאֲוַ֖ת גִּבְעֹ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם תִּֽהְיֶ֙ין֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ יוֹסֵ֔ף וּלְקָדְקֹ֖ד נְזִ֥יר אֶחָֽיו׃ (פ) The blessings of your father Surpass the blessings of my ancestors, To the utmost bounds of the eternal hills. May they rest on the head of Joseph, On the brow of the elect of his brothers.

In the case of Dan, the rabbis discuss his being a judge over Israel and and connect this to Samson. The things mentioned in Dan’s blessing parallel the events in Samson’s life. (see Rabbeinu Bahya, Bereshit 49:17 Parts 1-3) In his blessing, Jacob speaks of him being a viper striking the heals of the horse. This parallels what we read in Bereshit / Genesis 3:15 “the man will crush the serpent’s head” (הוא ישופך ראש Chizkuni, Genesis 49:17 Part 2) Which we know is a messianic prophecy. Note how Dan is described as the serpent, not the man. The serpent is a description of the evil one (Satan).

In the case of Joseph, Jacob is much more expansive and speaks to the blessings of God in heaven over Joseph. According to Rabbeinu Bahya, Bereshit 49:22 Parts 1-4 the interpretation of the Hebrew text from a kabbalistic interpretation is “the words בֵּ֤ן פֹּרָת֙ are an allusion to the glory of Israel, the word פֹּרָת֙, being a derivative of תִפאֶרֶת. The words עֲלֵי־עָ֑יִן, refer to the origin of the river Euphrates, i.e. פֹּרָת֙, which is one of the four rivers originating in גן עדן, in Paradise. Joseph gets his vital input directly from גן עדן. Seeing that the emanations נצח and הוד respectively appear left and right of the emanation תִפאֶרֶת in our usual diagrams, it is logical that he, Joseph, would produce two tribes instead of merely one. This is why Yaakov continued with בָּנ֕וֹת צָעֲדָ֖ה עֲלֵי־שֽׁוּר which Onkelos translates as “two tribes will emerge from him.” This is what caused Moses to speak of both שֽׁוּר and ראם, in his blessing of the tribe of Joseph (Deut, 33,17) the former representing the emanation נצח, the latter the emanation הוד.” It is interesting how this interpretation connects Joseph back to the garden of Eden (גן עדן) through the use of the words Jacob spoke. This is certainly connected to Joseph saving many peoples lives through his position of power in Egypt. Jacob speaks of Joseph being assailed by his brothers, and how Joseph was firm due to the God of Israel, the Rock of Israel. The end of Jacob’s words speak of his brothers resting in Joseph. This is an interesting thought as Joseph functions as a Savior Messiah in the way that he saved many from death.

The verses we are looking at for today are from Bereshit / Genesis 49:1-33.

ספר בראשית פרק מט
[רביעי] א וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב אֶל-בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הֵאָסְפוּ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר-יִקְרָא אֶתְכֶם בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים: ב הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל-יִשְֹרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם: ג רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹרִי אַתָּה כֹּחִי וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי יֶתֶר שְֹאֵת וְיֶתֶר עָז: ד פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל-תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה: פ ה שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם: ו בְּסֹדָם אַל-תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל-תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ-שׁוֹר: ז אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז וְעֶבְרָתָם כִּי קָשָׁתָה אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַעֲקֹב וַאֲפִיצֵם בְּיִשְֹרָאֵל: פ ח יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ: ט גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ: י לֹא-יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו עַד כִּי-יָבֹא שִׁילֹה וְלוֹ יִקְּהַת עַמִּים: יא אֹסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עִירֹה [עִירוֹ] וְלַשּׂרֵקָה בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן לְבֻשׁוֹ וּבְדַם-עֲנָבִים סוּתֹה [סוּתוֹ] : יב חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן-שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב: פ יג זְבוּלֻן לְחוֹף יַמִּים יִשְׁכֹּן וְהוּא לְחוֹף אֳנִיֹּת וְיַרְכָתוֹ עַל-צִידֹן: פ יד יִשָּׂשֹכָר חֲמֹר גָּרֶם רֹבֵץ בֵּין הַמִּשְׁפְּתָיִם: טו וַיַּרְא מְנֻחָה כִּי טוֹב וְאֶת-הָאָרֶץ כִּי נָעֵמָה וַיֵּט שִׁכְמוֹ לִסְבֹּל וַיְהִי לְמַס-עֹבֵד: ס טז דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ כְּאַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל: יז יְהִי-דָן נָחָשׁ עֲלֵי-דֶרֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹן עֲלֵי-אֹרַח הַנּשֵׁךְ עִקְּבֵי-סוּס וַיִּפֹּל רֹכְבוֹ אָחוֹר: יח לִישׁוּעָתְךָ קִוִּיתִי יְהוָֹה: ס [חמישי] יט גָּד גְּדוּד יְגוּדֶנּוּ וְהוּא יָגֻד עָקֵב: ס כ מֵאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ וְהוּא יִתֵּן מַעֲדַנֵּי-מֶלֶךְ: ס כא נַפְתָּלִי אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי-שָׁפֶר: ס כב בֵּן פֹּרָת יוֹסֵף בֵּן פֹּרָת עֲלֵי-עָיִן בָּנוֹת צָעֲדָה עֲלֵי-שׁוּר: כג וַיְמָרֲרֻהוּ וָרֹבּוּ וַיִּשְֹטְמֻהוּ בַּעֲלֵי חִצִּים: כד וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו מִידֵי אֲבִיר יַעֲקֹב מִשָּׁם רֹעֶה אֶבֶן יִשְֹרָאֵל: כה מֵאֵל אָבִיךָ וְיַעְזְרֶךָּ וְאֵת שַׁדַּי וִיבָרֲכֶךָּ בִּרְכֹת שָׁמַיִם מֵעָל בִּרְכֹת תְּהוֹם רֹבֶצֶת תָּחַת בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָחַם: כו בִּרְכֹת אָבִיךָ גָּבְרוּ עַל-בִּרְכֹת הוֹרַי עַד-תַּאֲוַת גִּבְעֹת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶיןָ לְרֹאשׁ יוֹסֵף וּלְקָדְקֹד נְזִיר אֶחָיו: פ [ששי] כז בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב יִטְרָף בַּבֹּקֶר יֹאכַל עַד וְלָעֶרֶב יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל: כח כָּל-אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָֹר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר-דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אֹתָם: כט וַיְצַו אוֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי נֶאֱסָף אֶל-עַמִּי קִבְרוּ אֹתִי אֶל-אֲבֹתָי אֶל-הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְֹדֵה עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי: ל בַּמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְֹדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר-עַל-פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת-הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי לַאֲחֻזַּת-קָבֶר: לא שָׁמָּה קָּבְרוּ אֶת-אַבְרָהָם וְאֵת שָֹרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת-יִצְחָק וְאֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְשָׁמָּה קָבַרְתִּי אֶת-לֵאָה: לב מִקְנֵה הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר-בּוֹ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי-חֵת: לג וַיְכַל יַעֲקֹב לְצַוֹּת אֶת-בָּנָיו וַיֶּאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו אֶל-הַמִּטָּה וַיִּגְוַע וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל-עַמָּיו:

Bereshit / Genesis 49:1-33
49:1 Then Jacob summoned his sons and said, ‘Assemble yourselves that I may tell you what will befall you in the days to come. 49:2 ‘Gather together and hear, O sons of Jacob; And listen to Israel your father. 49:3 ‘Reuben, you are my firstborn; My might and the beginning of my strength, Preeminent in dignity and preeminent in power. 49:4 ‘Uncontrolled as water, you shall not have preeminence, Because you went up to your father’s bed; Then you defiled it he went up to my couch. 49:5 ‘Simeon and Levi are brothers; Their swords are implements of violence. 49:6 ‘Let my soul not enter into their council; Let not my glory be united with their assembly; Because in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they lamed oxen. 49:7 ‘Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel. I will disperse them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel. 49:8 ‘Judah, your brothers shall praise you; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father’s sons shall bow down to you. 49:9 ‘Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He couches, he lies down as a lion, And as a lion, who dares rouse him up? 49:10 ‘The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes, And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples. 49:11 ‘He ties his foal to the vine, And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine; He washes his garments in wine, And his robes in the blood of grapes. 49:12 ‘His eyes are dull from wine, And his teeth white from milk. 49:13 ‘Zebulun will dwell at the seashore; And he shall be a haven for ships, And his flank shall be toward Sidon. 49:14 ‘Issachar is a strong donkey, Lying down between the sheepfolds. 49:15 ‘When he saw that a resting place was good And that the land was pleasant, He bowed his shoulder to bear burdens, And became a slave at forced labor. 49:16 ‘Dan shall judge his people, As one of the tribes of Israel. 49:17 ‘Dan shall be a serpent in the way, A horned snake in the path, That bites the horse’s heels, So that his rider falls backward. 49:18 ‘For Your salvation I wait, O Lord. 49:19 ‘As for Gad, raiders shall raid him, But he will raid at their heels. 49:20 ‘As for Asher, his food shall be rich, And he will yield royal dainties. 49:21 ‘Naphtali is a doe let loose, He gives beautiful words. 49:22 ‘Joseph is a fruitful bough, A fruitful bough by a spring; Its branches run over a wall. 49:23 ‘The archers bitterly attacked him, And shot at him and harassed him; 49:24 But his bow remained firm, And his arms were agile, From the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), 49:25 From the God of your father who helps you, And by the Almighty who blesses you With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that lies beneath, Blessings of the breasts and of the womb. 49:26 ‘The blessings of your father Have surpassed the blessings of my ancestors Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills; May they be on the head of Joseph, And on the crown of the head of the one distinguished among his brothers. 49:27 ‘Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; In the morning he devours the prey, And in the evening he divides the spoil.’ 49:28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father said to them when he blessed them. He blessed them, every one with the blessing appropriate to him. 49:29 Then he charged them and said to them, ‘I am about to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 49:30 in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought along with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a burial site. 49:31 ‘There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there I buried Leah 49:32 the field and the cave that is in it, purchased from the sons of Heth.’ 49:33 When Jacob finished charging his sons, he drew his feet into the bed and breathed his last, and was gathered to his people. (NASB)

The things that we learn about the tribe of Dan and Joseph are very important as we read through the rest of Scripture. Note, studying the Torah is absolutely foundational to understanding the rest of Scripture. This point is illustrated so profoundly when we study the book of Revelation, according to Revelation 7:1-10.

Revelation 7:1-10
7:1 After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth or on the sea or on any tree. 7:2 And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, having the seal of the living God; and he cried out with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was granted to harm the earth and the sea, 7:3 saying, ‘Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees until we have sealed the bond-servants of our God on their foreheads.’ 7:4 And I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel: 7:5 the tribe of Judah, twelve thousand were sealed, from the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, from the tribe of Gad twelve thousand, 7:6 the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, from the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, from the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand, 7:7 the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, from the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, from the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand, 7:8 the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, from the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, from the tribe of Benjamin, twelve thousand were sealed. 7:9 After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands; 7:10 and they cry out with a loud voice, saying, ‘Salvation to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.’ (NASB)

While reading through Revelation 7, note how the tribes of Israel are mentioned here, but there are a few things that are amiss. The first thing is the tribe of Dan is missing, and the second is the tribe of Ephraim is missing. In Ephraim’s place we find Joseph being called the tribe of Joseph which is different from what we read in the Torah. The question for us then is why is Dan missing from this list, and why is Joseph mentioned instead of Ephraim? The reason for Dan not being mentioned is connected to what we read about the blessing of Jacob:

Dan (49:16-18)
דָּ֖ן יָדִ֣ין עַמּ֑וֹ כְּאַחַ֖ד שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ Dan shall govern his people, As one of the tribes of Israel.17 יְהִי־דָן֙ נָחָ֣שׁ עֲלֵי־דֶ֔רֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹ֖ן עֲלֵי־אֹ֑רַח הַנֹּשֵׁךְ֙ עִקְּבֵי־ס֔וּס וַיִּפֹּ֥ל רֹכְב֖וֹ אָחֽוֹר׃ Dan shall be a serpent by the road, A viper by the path, That bites the horse’s heels So that his rider is thrown backward 18 לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהוָֽה׃ I wait for Your deliverance, O LORD!

In his blessing, Jacob speaks of him being a viper striking the heals of the horse. This parallels what we read in Bereshit / Genesis 3:15 “the man will crush the serpent’s head” (הוא ישופך ראש) Note that it is Chizkuni, Genesis 49:17 Part 2, who suggests this connection. We also know that Bereshit / Genesis 3:15 is a messianic prophecy. This historical point of view is also of interest as it helps to explain why the tribe of Dan is not mentioned in Revelation 7:4-8. According to the Tanach, the tribe of Dan as a whole was guilty of gross idolatry, even to the point of stealing the idols they used to practice their religion (see Judges 18:14-31). It was also Dan who first organized idolatry in ancient Israel, and the longest in duration. (Judges 18:30) Jewish tradition says that Dan was the first tribe to follow Jeroboam into his sin of idolatry, and the rabbinic literature the tribe of Dan is often used to represent idolatry. Note the following references

Rashi on Deuteronomy 34:1 Part 3
עד דן UNTO DAN — He showed him the children of Dan practicing idolatry, as it is said, “And the sons of Dan erected the graven image for themselves”; and He showed him also Samson who would in the future
(Ref. Pentateuch with Rashi’s commentary by M. Rosenbaum and A.M. Silbermann, 1929-1934)

Sifrei Devarim 357:7
Variantly: “until Dan”: We are hereby taught that He showed him the seed of Dan, serving idolatry, viz. “And the children of Dan set up for themselves the carved image, etc.
(Ref. Sifrei by Rabbi Shraga Silverstein)

Tur HaAroch, Numbers 2:2 Part 1
[Judges 18 describes that the tribe of Dan hired themselves a phony priest and instituted idolatry in their newly conquered territory, formerly known as Layish.
(Ref. Tur on the Torah, trans. Eliyahu Munk)

Rashi on Ezekiel 16:15 Part 3
This entire allegory represents the Calf of the desert and the other idolatry that the tribe of Dan worshipped in the desert, as it is written : “all those who trailed after you,” and we find in the Pesikta Ezekiel,
(English translation by S. Fisch, Soncino Press, 1950)

We note also that Dan is missing from the genealogies in 1 Chronicles 1-9. This is also a significant observation in light of Revelation 7. Many have suggested that Dan may have not returned form captivity and thus lost his place in the tribes. We not that Ephraim is not mentioned, and Ephraim in both the Scriptures and the Rabbinic literature at times are synonymous to the entire northern kingdom in terms of idolatrous worship. The prophet Hosea speaks of Ephraim as describing the 10 tribes (northern kingdom) as being in apostasy in idolatry. The historical and literary analysis of this does suggests these as reasons, however, I feel it is prophetic word Jacob spoke over Dan that is most significant. Dan being connected to Bereshit / Genesis 3:15, Jacob says עֲלֵי־דֶ֔רֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹ֖ן עֲלֵי־אֹ֑רַח הַנֹּשֵׁךְ֙ עִקְּבֵי־ס֔וּס וַיִּפֹּ֥ל רֹכְב֖וֹ אָחֽוֹר׃ Dan shall be a serpent by the road, A viper by the path, That bites the horse’s heels So that his rider is thrown backward. Notice how Dan is the serpent, representing the evil one (Satan). In Revelation, we learn how Yeshua the Messiah overcome Satan and the world. The reason Dan is not mentioned specifically in Revelation 7 is because of this connection, as representing the evil one, and Yeshua’s victory over the evil one in fulfillment of biblical prophecy.

The last line in Dan’s blessing from Jacob states, לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהוָֽה׃ I wait for Your deliverance, O LORD! Notice how Jacob by inspiration of the Lord, speaks to Dan concerning the salvation (לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖) deliverance of the Lord God Almighty in heaven. This connects us to why Joseph was mentioned in Revelation 7 in opposition to Ephraim which represents idolatry and sin. We are being told in Revelation 7 to remember the life of Joseph, how he was faithful, long suffering, forgiving, and merciful, and most importantly, he was a savior of the world as a type of messiah. The things that we learn about the tribe of Dan and Joseph here in relation to the book of Revelation are very important and illustrate for us why studying Torah is so important for our lives, especially for understanding all of Scripture! The Torah speaks to the salvation of God and of His Messiah Yeshua! We even see Yeshua’s (ישוע) name right here in the blessing, לִֽישׁוּעָתְךָ֖ קִוִּ֥יתִי יְהוָֽה׃ of waiting upon the Lord! Now, should we ask ourselves why it is so important that we believe in Yeshua as the NT text states we should? Certainly, faith in Yeshua as the Savior Messiah of God is taught from the very beginning of the pages of Scripture!

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Dr. Duane D. Miller received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. Degree in Chemical Engineering from The University of Akron Ohio. He is currently a Chemical Engineering Researcher. Duane’s research expertise has focused upon functional materials development for the control, conversion, and release of process gases in Energy production technologies. His R&D interests include computational chemistry, developing novel technologies for converting biomass to fuels and studying their fundamental interactions during the chemical conversion process. His past experience includes sorbent development for pre- and post-combustion CO2 and SO2 capture, selective absorption of H2S from methane streams, O2 capture for oxy-fuel combustion, photocatalytic reduction of alcohols, NOx reduction catalysis, the development of oxygen carriers to combust fossil fuels (CH4 and coal) for the chemical looping combustion processes, and the extraction of rare earth elements using patent pending sorbents. His research expertise has focused on operando-characterization using Infrared, Raman, and UV-Vis spectroscopy to observe the nature of the catalytic active sites and reaction intermediates under realistic reaction conditions, allowing direct correlation of molecular/electronic structures with catalyst performance during Gas-Solid / Liquid-Solid Adsorption and Photocatalytic Processes with real time online analysis of reaction products using ICP-MS and mass spectrometry. His current work involves a multi-disciplinary approach to developing, understanding, and improving the catalytic gasification of coal and methane, high temperature chemical looping combustion, and the catalytic decomposition and gasification of biomass and coal using novel microwave reactor.​ He has been studying the Hebrew Scriptures and the Torah for 20+ years and sharing what he has learned. The studies developed for MATSATI.COM are freely to be used by everyone, to God be the Glory!