The Army Research Laboratory recently published a paper describing a Quantum Sensor that is an electric field sensor capable of detecting the entire Radio Frequency Spectrum.  The researchers accomplished this by exciting atoms in a glass vapor cell using a laser raising an electron to an elevated energy state called a Rydberg state. The Rydberg states of an atom or molecule are electronically excited states with energies that follow the Rydberg formula as they converge on an ionic state with an ionization energy. Although the Rydberg formula was developed to describe atomic energy levels, it has been used to describe many other systems that have electronic structure roughly similar to atomic hydrogen. In general, at sufficiently high principal quantum numbers, an excited electron, an ionic core system, will have the general character of a hydrogenic system and the energy levels will follow the Rydberg formula. Rydberg states have energies converging on the energy of the ion. The ionization energy threshold is the energy required to completely liberate an electron from the ionic core of an atom or molecule. In practice, a Rydberg wave packet is created by a laser pulse on a hydrogenic atom and thus populates a superposition of Rydberg states. In physics and chemistry, a hydrogen-like atom (or hydrogenic atom) is an atom with one electron. Examples of hydrogen-like atoms/ions are Hydrogen itself, He(+), Li(2+), Be(3+) and B(4+), etc. These excited states detect the electric fields that are emitted from a gold antenna and then the information from the electric field is imprinted back onto the laser beam.
- David H Meyer et al, Assessment of Rydberg atoms for wideband electric field sensing, Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (2019). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6455/ab6051
These quantum sensors could provide soldiers with a way to detect communication signals over the entire radio frequency spectrum, from 1k to 1000 GHz. The novelty of this finding is using conventional existing technology such a wide spectral coverage is not possible using a single antenna. The traditional receiver system would require multiple systems of individual antennas, amplifiers, and other components in order to simultaneously detect the full radio frequency spectrum (from 1k to 1000 GHz). Army scientists were the first to create a quantum receiver in this way that uses excited Rydberg state electrons that have a sensitivity for detecting communications signals simultaneously. The researchers were able to theoretically calculate the capacity (rate of data transmission) of the sensor using fundamental principles (quantum mechanics). The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics explains the behavior of matter and its interactions by quantizing a system of energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Researchers then performed experiments proving the theoretical prediction of the quantum sensor. In order to access and experimentally validate the sensor, scientists conducted the experiment by exciting atoms to their Rydberg states, then oscillating electric fields from 1k to 1000 GHertz. Their findings suggest this technology can successfully detected signals over the entire radio spectrum and was compared to the existing sensor technology (electro-optic crystals, dipole antenna-coupled passive electronics). The Scientists report they tested their sensor to confirm their model’s calculations in the frequency range of 1 to 20 GHz. The most impressive part of this type of research is how scientists used quantum mechanics to understand the materials properties and design of the sensor. The researchers were able to predict the performance of the sensor to a very high degree, which allows for the theoretical design of new sensors that could be used in this field.
This research supports the Army’s initiative to modernize systems to next-generation technology in order to remain ahead of foreign nations. This technology could significantly influence novel communications approaches for detection of radio frequency signals for geolocation. The future research will consist of improving the technology, increasing the sensitivity and response in order to detect even weaker signals and expand detection protocols for more complicated waveforms.
The Spiritual Insights that we receive from this type of research is related to being able to see the big picture. This research speaks of one sensor having the capability of sensing all of the radio frequency spectrum simultaneously and then encoding the signals back onto the exciting laser. This prevents the need for multiple antenna and electronic equipment, etc. The parallel is found in the idea that the witness of God’s truth is fundamental and necessary for our thinking in the sense that there is one fundamental truth! The truth of God is available if we are willing to look for it. The reason this is an absolute necessity and foundational, is due to what we are seeing today in our culture. Health and mental health care in the United States are embedded in Western science and medicine, which emphasize scientific inquiry and objective evidence. People tend today to be on the fence teetering between the rational and the irrational. What we see today is everything becoming a matter of “subjective thinking” in the sense that whether religious, political, social, or moral beliefs are simply a matter of personal opinion as society moves away from objective truth. Under the auspices of “Subjective thinking” this way of thought overrides objective thinking and logical reasoning. This is where the idea of enlightenment of intellectual freedom comes from where an individual believes anything he or she wishes in a way that is out of control. This leads to ultra-individualism, imagination (dreaming up epic fantasies) which is superimposed upon and overrides sober, rational, empirical thought. Why the truth about God is so foundational is because God’s presence, His truth lights up all of creation, including our minds. Paul wrote that “the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen so that people are without excuse.” (See Romans 1:19-20) This means that creation attests, or stands as a witness, to the reality of God’s handiwork. (see Tehillim / Psalms 19:1) When we establish God’s Word as foundational in our lives, and stand upon His Word as truth, this influences our thinking as well. Our chain of thought, reasoning, apprehensions, and the processes by which our mind discovers the truth about reality changes. The idea of logic and reason is part of God’s signature as having created us after His image. We are the only creatures capable of using logic and reason, this is how our minds are wired to understand reality. The Lord God Almighty made us so that we can discern truth. The mind functions in this way, but we see today a loss of logic and truth in the constructs of politics and culture.
The Torah has a lot to say concerning these things, such as what we read in Shemot / Exodus 25:8 which states, וְעָ֥שׂוּ לִ֖י מִקְדָּ֑שׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֖י בְּתוֹכָֽם׃ “And let them make Me a sanctuary that I may dwell among them.” Here the Lord God speaks to the Children of Israel to make a holy place, a sanctuary for Him. The physical dwelling place of God on earth, the Tabernacle (Mishkhan), also signifies the deeper aspect of the physical counterpart, which is the duty of man to sanctify the Name of God and bring a sense of holiness to the inner life. This requires us to use our minds to honor God, to recognize the sacredness of life (anti-abortion), and to taking every thought captive (see 2 Corinthians 10:5) as Paul wrote to be conformed to the truth of God in the Messiah. Our hearts, our minds, are the gateways to spiritual revelation, to the truth of God, thus we are to be careful to honor God, and to not be sloppy in our thinking by living in epic fantasies. Through the power of God, by His indwelling Spirit, we are given the means for understanding honor, duty, moral reality, and truth! Remember, the Scriptures say that God holds us responsible for what we think and for what we believe. (Acts 17:30-31) The Scriptures establish ethics and morals, and reject error in both the physical and the spiritual realms. God holds us responsible to repent and believe the truth on the need for salvation. Because God created us in His image, we have the ability to understand and to discern these things. We recognize the problem of sin in our lives. These things reveal to us the necessity for having God’s Spirit within, so that we can sense (discern) these things in our lives. This parallels the scientific research by the use of a quantum sensor and the excited Rydberg states which are capable of sensing the entire radio frequency spectrum simultaneously. We are given the ability to discern, by the Spirit of God that dwells within, the consequences of sin. As a result, we value clear thinking because we must think in order to live. This should be obvious! The problem is in order to come to ethical and moral conclusions, one must be grounded in the Word of God, and carefully think through questions about these things in life. Many today want what is easy, and devalue the effort that is required to think through difficult questions that pertain to life and rather leaning towards what is pleasurable as opposed to what is right. When it comes to the Gospel Message, the Lord God regards careless thinking and belief as blameworthy. We do not simply make confession with our lips without following through with our lives. The Lord God holds us accountable for what we think and believe. This is what happened during the wilderness journey, the people thought and believed they were not able to enter into the Promised Land, they did not trust in God, and so the Lord God caused them to wander in the wilderness for 40 years until every one of them that lacked faith had died. (Bamidbar / Numbers 14:33, 32:13)
The Jewish sages have said that the seal of God is truth according to Likutei Moharan and Mateh Levi.
Likutei Moharan 112:1:7
וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא בְּמַדְרֵגַת אֱמֶת, אֲזַי כִּבְיָכוֹל נִתְלַבֵּשׁ בּוֹ אוֹר הַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרַךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֲשֶׁר חוֹתָמוֹ אֱמֶת, וְאָז נֶאֱמַר עָלָיו: ה’ אוֹרִי וְיִשְׁעִי (תהילים כ״ז:א׳). וְכֵיוָן שֶּׁה’ אוֹר לוֹ, יוּכַל לִמְצֹא פְּתָחִים הַרְבֵּה לָצֵאת מֵהַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַגָּלוּת שֶׁהוּא סָגוּר שָׁם. כִּי בֶּאֱמֶת יֵשׁ שָׁם פְּתָחִים הַרְבֵּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה (יומא לח: מנחות כט:): הַבָּא לִטָּמֵא – פּוֹתְחִין לוֹ, יֵשׁ לוֹ פְּתָחִים הַרְבֵּה.
And, because he is on the level of truth, the light of God Himself, whose seal is truth, is then, so to speak, enclothed in him. Then it is said of him (Psalms 27:1), “God is my light and my help.” And, because God is his light, he is able to find many openings from which to depart the darkness and exile in which he is enclosed. For the truth is that there are many openings there, as our Sages teach (Menachot 29b): “When someone comes to defile himself, they open up for him”—there are many openings for him. (Likutey Moharan Volumes 1-11, trans. by Moshe Mykoff. Breslov Research Inst., 1986-2012)
Mateh Levi 19:8
אמנם אף אם אין איסור בגוף הדבר מ”מ קשה להאמין שאותם האנשים אשר יחכו להיתר לנסוע על מסילת הברזל הזאת בשבת ידקדקו באיסור הוצאה וטלטול ולקיחת ביללעט ובעו”ה ראה ראינו כי רבים פרקו עול איסורים האלה מעליהם ועוברים עליהם בצנעה ובפרהסיא ורבים מן העם אשר חדלו עד כה לעבור עליהם יבאו ח”ו לכמה עבירות ע”י שיתירו להם לנסוע שבת ויען שהאמת היא חותמו של הקב”ה גם בענין זה טוב ונחוץ להניד האמת והוא שבעיקר הדבר אין יסוד לאוסרו אבל מחמת שיוכלו לבא לידי מכשולים על ידו ירחיקו היראים מן הכיעור ומן הדומה לו וינהגו בו איסור וד’ יזכנו לזכות את הרבים ויתן לכבוד מעלת ידידי נ”י כח לעשות חיל לטובת כל ישראל כאשר עם לבבו הטהור. דברי מוקירו ומכבדו
Nevertheless, though there is nothing prohibited about this matter itself, it is hard to believe that those people who are waiting for permission to travel on this train on Shabbat will be meticulous about the prohibitions of hotza’ah, moving forbidden objects (tiltul/muktzeh), and carrying a ticket. Due to our sins, we have seen that many people have removed the yoke of such prohibitions from their necks and violate them in private and in public. Many of the people who have thus far refrained from violating them will come, God forbid, to transgress several prohibitions if we permit them to travel on Shabbat. Yet since truth is the seal of God, even in on this matter it is good, and necessary, to tell the truth, namely, that fundamentally there is no basis for prohibiting it, but that since doing so can cause one to stumble, anyone who is God-fearing should distance himself from this unsightliness and anything similar. They should treat it as forbidden. May God privilege us to bring public merit and give you, my honorable friend, the strength to accomplish much for the benefit of all Israel, in accordance with your pure heart. The words of one who honors and esteems you.
The rabbis say the last three words of the creation account according to Bereshit / Genesis 2:3 which states וַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַעֲשֽׂוֹת׃ “And God blessed the seventh day and declared it holy, because on it God ceased from all the work of creation that He had done.” The last letter in each of these words “Bara Elohim La’asot” (בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַעֲשֽׂוֹת) spell emet (truth). The point the rabbis are trying to make is that the truth of God is found in the idea of “doing” something, obeying God’s Word, and having our lives centered on the duty and obligation to His Word which is founded upon the creation. The seal of God is truth, it is a matter of living it, and of truth becoming a part of our lives. We as the children of God exist in God’s truth in the sense that God is utterly trustworthy, and His Messiah, the anointed one of God, leads the way as the Seal of God in His blood. The Seal of God as truth, should be evidenced in all of our lives as the people of God. Note how the word for truth, emet (אֱמֶת), contains the opening and closing letters of the Hebrew alef-bet indicating the “first and the last,” “the beginning and the end,” everything is founded upon truth. If there is no truth, we descend into irrational thought and life. Notice how the Spirit of God is also called the Spirit of truth according to John 14:16-17, 15:26, and 16:13. When the Lord God established His word at the mountain of Sinai, and in the construction of the Tabernacle, He established His truth in ethics and morality. As followers of Yeshua, we too are commanded to love the truth and think clearly about our faith. Paul wrote that the word of truth by the power of God is the weapons of our righteousness (see 2 Corinthians 6:7). These are the things that are drawn out by the scientific research that is related to being able to see the big picture as opposed to self centeredness, self gratification, and self imposed fantasies. The Word of Truth (τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας) is the way Paul writes of our being revealed the salvation of God i.e. “the gospel of salvation.” (Ephesians 1:13, Colosians 1:5, James 1:18). We need salvation, we need deliverance, we need redemption because of our sins in this world. God sent a means for our salvation by Yeshua, who is the “way, the truth, and the life.” (John 14:6) The Lord God of Israel commands all people to believe this truth (Acts 17:30-31, 1 Timothy 2:4). We are also told people perish because “they refuse to love the truth and so be saved.” (2 Thessalonians 2:10-12) When we have faith in Yeshua, coupled with the Spirit of God dwelling within, we are able to discern all of these things, similar to the quantum sensor and radio frequency spectrum. Without Yeshua, and without the Spirit of God, one is left with only one antenna to measure a very narrow band in the radio frequency spectrum, missing the truth, which leads to one being overcome by the power of sin. By having the Son of God (Yeshua) in our lives, and the indwelling of the Spirit of God, the issue of truth becomes central to our lives and to salvation itself.