One of the challenges for quantum computing are the difficulty in the engineering design of the system due primarily to errors in data redundancy which is affected by noise, faults, and loss of quantum coherence. The problem is when a quantum computing system is constructed, and a program is executed, the state of the q-bits changes before a nontrivial program (i.e. “hello world” would be considered a trivial program) has a chance to run to completion. The loss of coherence caused by vibrations, temperature fluctuations, electromagnetic waves, or any environmental effects influences the state of the q-bit in the quantum computer system. The research efforts scientists are using to solve this problem includes machine learning to optimize the quantum circuits into shorter equivalent circuits in the hopes that the computer algorithm will be able to run faster before a quantum error has a chance to corrupt the computation. This approach however does not solve the problem of quantum coherence. Other researchers are looking for ways to increase quantum stability, and recently, MIT researchers published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  describing the observation of Majorana fermion particles that are theorized to also be their own antiparticle on the surface of gold. A fermion is a subatomic particle, such as a nucleon, which has half-integral spin and follows the statistical description given by Fermi and Dirac. A Majorana fermion, also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle. These fermions were hypothesized by Ettore Majorana in 1937. The term is sometimes used in opposition to a Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. With the exception of the neutrino, all of the Standard Model fermions are known to behave as Dirac fermions at low energy, and none are Majorana fermions. The nature of the neutrinos is not settled. Neutrinos may be either Dirac or Majorana fermions. In condensed matter physics, bound Majorana fermions can appear as quasiparticle excitations exhibiting the collective movement of several individual particles, not a single one, and they are governed by non-abelian statistics. (More information on the topic of “abelian statistics” may be found in the articles titled Topological Superconductivity and Synthetic Dimensions)
- Sujit Manna, Peng Wei, Yingming Xie, Kam Tuen Law, Patrick A. Lee and Jagadeesh S. Moodera, “Signature of a pair of Majorana zero modes in superconducting gold surface states,” 6 April 2020, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919753117
Fermions in particle physics, are a class of elementary particles that includes electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. These particles are the building blocks of matter. MIT scientists have observed evidence of Majorana fermions  in a system that consisted of gold nanowires on top of a superconducting material, vanadium, and dotted with small, ferromagnetic particles of europium sulfide. STM (scanning tunneling microscopy) topological scans of the nanowire network revealed signature peaks near the nanowire surface ferromagnetic particles, that theoretically are produced by pairs of Majorana fermions. The next research effort is to turn these into q-bits which would be a milestone toward practical quantum computing. The idea for using the Majorana fermions is that each combination of Majorana particles would be separated from its antiparticle. If noise resulting from environmental factors affected one of the particles, the other will remain unaffected preserving the integrity of the q-bit and allowing the computer algorithm to run to completion without errors. Scientists elsewhere have observed Majorana particles, however, their presence is still questionable, but evidence for their existence grows. The difficulty is found in the need to produce thousands or millions of these kinds of q-bits for practical quantum computing applications. The scientific experiment reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  used a gold layer that was only three layers of atoms thick sandwiched between a ferromagnet and a superconductor. This method is said to be economically scalable, and easy to manufacture, compared to the conventional semiconductor based approaches to generate q-bits. The next effort is to turn the Majorana fermion into a q-bit. This most recent research provides scientists with ideas on how to approach the problem of turning the Majorana fermion into a q-bit. This research was funded in part, by the John Templeton Foundation, the U.S. Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy.
The Spiritual insight that we receive from this type of research is related to the possibility of the existence of the Majorana fermion, a particle theorized to exist having its own antiparticle. From the sense of quantum coherence, one particle remaining stable while another is corrupted, this type of research reminds me of the physical counterparts of the heavenly copies that are spoken of in the Torah, and in the Apostolic Writings. The significance of this research as it is applied to quantum computing, data coherence, and redundancy, how one particle could be corrupted while the other remain, a parallel is found in the heavenly copies, though the earthly copy was destroyed, the heavenly copy remains and functions for the purpose of atonement in heaven. In addition to this, this research also reminds me of what Paul wrote saying we do not yet know what we will be like in the sense that “no eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for us.” (1 Corinthians 2:9) Note Paul wrote that “but just as it is written, ‘THINGS WHICH EYE HAS NOT SEEN AND EAR HAS NOT HEARD, AND which HAVE NOT ENTERED THE HEART OF MAN, ALL THAT GOD HAS PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO LOVE HIM.’” Where was this written? This reference comes from the book of Isaiah.
From ancient times no one has heard, no ear has perceived, no eye has seen any God but You, who acts on behalf of those who wait for Him. (NASB)
For behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind. (NASB)
The idea of heaven and earth, both the Hebrews and the Greeks had their own idea (interpretation) of what will happen in life after death, considering the Jewish versus Greek mythology, the differences are significant. Life after death is a mystery, and so what we do is look to the one who has conquered death in order to understand what it means to die and to live again. (Yeshua the Messiah) The NT actually has a lot to say about these things. In relation to life after death and God, the phrase “hester panim” (הֶסְתֵר פָּנִים) means “hiding of the face” (ספר תהילים פרק נא:יא הַסְתֵּר פָּנֶיךָ מֵחֲטָאָי וְכָל-עֲוֹנֹתַי מְחֵה) speaks of no man having seen God and lived. Note how this phrase may be found in Tehillim / Psalms 51:11. This phrase is used when the rabbis have a discussion on the book of Esther since the name of God is not mentioned even once throughout the entire book. God’s presence however is felt and the people of God fast and pray, and the outcome of the story brings glory to the God of Israel even though His name is not mentioned at all. The best analogy may be found in this research, the mysterious Majorana particle, some research scientists have verified through experimental work its presence, others have not. Though some do not see it, that does not mean that it isn’t there. In a similar way, God’s providential care for us is at work at all times whether we know it or not. Our faith is what confirms “v’kal hamasim yadenu ki yazeru yakhdav l’tovah” (וְכָל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים יָדַעְנוּ כִּי יַעְזְרוּ יַחְדָּו לְטוֹבָה), meaning “And all things work together for good” (i.e. Romans 8:28, וְכָל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים יָדַעְנוּ כִּי יַעְזְרוּ יַחְדָּו לְטוֹבָה לְאֹהֲבֵי אֱלהִים הַקְּרֻאִים בְּסוֹד עֲצָתוֹ׃, “And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.” NASB). Notice that the affirmation is “this too is for good” meaning that the invisible power of God through faith sustains us (2 Corinthians 4:18). This world is filled with pain and suffering due to sin. Faith is what gives us understanding, based upon God’s Word (the Scriptures), that the “present form of this world is passing away” for purposes that are good (1 Corinthians 7:31). Faith affirms in our hearts that the spiritual life is the deeper reality, the presence of God and His redemptive love is the end goal, and has been fully expressed in His son Yeshua the Messiah! Like the research on Majorana particles, researchers struggle to find its existence and then bring this phenomenon into practical application. In parallel fashion, we “see through” a mirror (i.e., indirectly) through the promises of our eternal home where one day we will behold God “panim el panim” (פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים), “face to face” (1 Corinthians 13:12).
Let’s consider a biblical example of these things! The story of Joseph reveals these truths to us in God’s hidden hand that moves for the good of our lives! We see some extreme conditions in Joseph’s life, his own family (his brothers) sold him into slavery in Egypt. The initial conditions of captivity were good, God had blessed Joseph and he became a servant of Potiphar and he was set as overseer of all that he owned. The Evil one however tempted Potiphar’s wife, and Joseph would not sin, and so he was put into jail for many years. The Lord used Joseph in the Egyptian prison to help others, and after interpreting Pharaoh’s dreams, he was put in charge over all of Egypt. Joseph later told his brothers, “you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good” (Bereshit / Genesis 50:20, כ וְאַתֶּם חֲשַׁבְתֶּם עָלַי רָעָה אֱלֹהִים חֲשָׁבָהּ לְטֹבָה לְמַעַן עֲשֹה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְהַחֲיֹת עַם-רָב). What these things teach us about Joseph’s life is about judging others. Specifically, not to unjustly judge God’s purposes for our lives due to the circumstances of our lives. Though we may not observe the direct hand of God, that does not mean that He is not at work or that His plans are not very good. We are given God’s word to help understand His ways, accepting that He works all things together for our good. This causes even the bad things that happen in our lives to give praise to the Lord. Notice something the prophet Isaiah says concerning the Lord.
64:5 You meet him who rejoices in doing righteousness, Who remembers You in Your ways. Behold, You were angry, for we sinned, We continued in them a long time; And shall we be saved? 64:6 For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away. 64:7 There is no one who calls on Your name, Who arouses himself to take hold of You; For You have hidden Your face from us And have delivered us into the power of our iniquities. 64:8 But now, O Lord, You are our Father, We are the clay, and You our potter; And all of us are the work of Your hand. 64:9 Do not be angry beyond measure, O Lord, Nor remember iniquity forever; Behold, look now, all of us are Your people. 64:10 Your holy cities have become a wilderness, Zion has become a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. 64:11 Our holy and beautiful house, Where our fathers praised You, Has been burned by fire; And all our precious things have become a ruin. (NASB, ה הָאֹמְרִים קְרַב אֵלֶיךָ אַל-תִּגַּשׁ-בִּי כִּי קְדַשְׁתִּיךָ אֵלֶּה עָשָׁן בְּאַפִּי אֵשׁ יֹקֶדֶת כָּל-הַיּוֹם: ו הִנֵּה כְתוּבָה לְפָנָי לֹא אֶחֱשֶֹה כִּי אִם-שִׁלַּמְתִּי וְשִׁלַּמְתִּי עַל-חֵיקָם: ז עֲוֹנֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲוֹנֹת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם יַחְדָּו אָמַר יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל-הֶהָרִים וְעַל-הַגְּבָעוֹת חֵרְפוּנִי וּמַדֹּתִי פְעֻלָּתָם רִאשֹׁנָה עֶל [אֶל] -חֵיקָם: ח כֹּה | אָמַר יְהֹוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יִמָּצֵא הַתִּירוֹשׁ בָּאֶשְׁכּוֹל וְאָמַר אַל-תַּשְׁחִיתֵהוּ כִּי בְרָכָה בּוֹ כֵּן אֶעֱשֶֹה לְמַעַן עֲבָדַי לְבִלְתִּי הַשְׁחִית הַכֹּל: ט וְהוֹצֵאתִי מִיַּעֲקֹב זֶרַע וּמִיהוּדָה יוֹרֵשׁ הָרָי וִירֵשׁוּהָ בְחִירַי וַעֲבָדַי יִשְׁכְּנוּ-שָׁמָּה: י וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרוֹן לִנְוֵה-צֹאן וְעֵמֶק עָכוֹר לְרֵבֶץ בָּקָר לְעַמִּי אֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּנִי: יא וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי יְהֹוָה הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת-הַר קָדְשִׁי הַעֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ:)
Isaiah states that the Lord communes with the one who rejoices in doing righteousness. We however have sinned, and Isaiah asks “shall we be saved, for all of us have become as one who is unclean.” He draws out the significance of sin in our lives by saying “our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment.” Isaiah states that God hides himself due to our iniquities and because of our sins He has delivered us into our iniquities, basically God gives us what we want. Isaiah continues saying it is because of sin that the precious things have been destroyed, where the Temple, the cities, and the holy land have become desolate. This reminds us of the importance and significance of the spiritual counterparts that are drawn out in the scientific research. Isaiah speaks of the need for the mercy of God and for healing from sin and deliverance. The Apostle Paul ties these things together from Isaiah 64 stating it is the wisdom of God that brings salvation, and the wisdom of God is a mystery, hidden from our understanding, and exceeding our expectations. Paul adds to what Isaiah said in 1 Corinthians 2:9 saying “neither has it entered into the heart of man.” This may have been added to suggest God’s salvation is beyond knowing as the Greeks were particular about philosophy, and knowledge and spent their days discussing new ideas. Paul wrote this way to help us understand that how God works is a mystery as He works out His plan for our lives in the midst of the troubles we have in this life. In the spiritual realm, the manner in which God provides salvation in His Son Yeshua the Messiah, the way this was worked out was beyond imagination or human apprehension. The “good news” of the gospel is itself a mystery, how God desires to dwell in our midst, and how this is achieved by faith in Yeshua, God’s presence literally dwells in our midst (in our hearts).
The Jewish commentaries state “the seal of God is truth”
Mateh Levi 19:8מטה לוי י״ט:ח׳
אמנם אף אם אין איסור בגוף הדבר מ”מ קשה להאמין שאותם האנשים אשר יחכו להיתר לנסוע על מסילת הברזל הזאת בשבת ידקדקו באיסור הוצאה וטלטול ולקיחת ביללעט ובעו”ה ראה ראינו כי רבים פרקו עול איסורים האלה מעליהם ועוברים עליהם בצנעה ובפרהסיא ורבים מן העם אשר חדלו עד כה לעבור עליהם יבאו ח”ו לכמה עבירות ע”י שיתירו להם לנסוע שבת ויען שהאמת היא חותמו של הקב”ה גם בענין זה טוב ונחוץ להניד האמת והוא שבעיקר הדבר אין יסוד לאוסרו אבל מחמת שיוכלו לבא לידי מכשולים על ידו ירחיקו היראים מן הכיעור ומן הדומה לו וינהגו בו איסור וד’ יזכנו לזכות את הרבים ויתן לכבוד מעלת ידידי נ”י כח לעשות חיל לטובת כל ישראל כאשר עם לבבו הטהור. דברי מוקירו ומכבדו
“Nevertheless, though there is nothing prohibited about this matter itself, it is hard to believe that those people who are waiting for permission to travel on this train on Shabbat will be meticulous about the prohibitions of hotza’ah, moving forbidden objects (tiltul/muktzeh), and carrying a ticket. Due to our sins, we have seen that many people have removed the yoke of such prohibitions from their necks and violate them in private and in public. Many of the people who have thus far refrained from violating them will come, God forbid, to transgress several prohibitions if we permit them to travel on Shabbat. Yet since truth is the seal of God, even in on this matter it is good, and necessary, to tell the truth, namely, that fundamentally there is no basis for prohibiting it, but that since doing so can cause one to stumble, anyone who is God-fearing should distance himself from this unsightliness and anything similar. They should treat it as forbidden. May God privilege us to bring public merit and give you, my honorable friend, the strength to accomplish much for the benefit of all Israel, in accordance with your pure heart. The words of one who honors and esteems you.”
We had learned before that this was derived from the creation account according to Bereshit / Genesis 2:3 where the words “bara Elohim la’asot” (בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשֹוֹת) the final letters of these three words spell emet (truth). Based upon this interpretation coupled to what the Scriptures teach us, God created our reality “to do” (לַעֲשֹוֹת) something. This is interpreted to mean that it is our responsibility as God’s creatures to live for Him. Truth is about doing, not about “being” (i.e. the state of “being” is purely a Greek philosophical construct.). The Hebraic nature of biblical truth is centered upon the realm of duty and obligation, and there is a very good reason for this! This is connected to our relationship with God, and our loving the Lord God with all of our heart, mind, and strength. The reason this is so significant is because the Scriptures describe the truth of God as not just a matter of being sincere. It is a matter of being true to God’s Word, truth is found in action, because action demonstrates what one really believes, whether one truly trusts in the Lord, in His Word (the Scriptures) and this is correlated to our living out God’s Word. Our relationship with God exists within this realm of action and truth. This provides a coherency in our lives as God’s faithful children. Note the parallel to the need for quantum coherence in quantum computational systems. We need a system of checks and balances to provide coherency to our faith, this is what God’s Torah does for us, drawing us back to righteousness, holiness, justice, and truth, and showing us our need for the Messiah! This is why we are able to appeal to the God of Israel in the name of His Son in teshuvah (repentance). Our relationship with God is not prewritten, and because our lives are not prewritten we are able to appeal to God for mercy and grace. This is how Moshe could write saying, “harden not your hearts” (Devarim / Deuteronomy 15:7) you “stiff necked people.” (Shemot / Exodus 32:9) This is also how the author of Hebrews could write, “Today is the day of salvation.” (Hebrews 4:7) The Scriptures speak of the Lord being merciful and indicate that He is compassionate. (Bereshit / Genesis 5:29, Tehillim / Psalm 23:4, Isaiah 12:1, 40:1, 52:9, etc.) When we seek the Lord, turning to him in repentance, we will receive His compassion. The conclusions we can make by drawing the Scientific research in parallel to the Word of God, and the life and relationship of His people, is that there is a mystery, but we are not left searching in the dark. God has given us His Holy Word, His only Son Yeshua, and the promise of the Gospel of His dwelling in our midst, and His Holy Spirit to guide and direct us if we are willing to listen, to live, and to submit our lives to Him according to His Word.