Why the Next Lunar Astronauts May Have to Worry About Electric Shocks – A Spiritual Insight

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NASA has mentioned the idea of putting a moon base on the Martian moon Phobos prior to exploring the planet Mars. A paper published in 2018 [1] reported how an astronaut walking or driving on the Martian moon Phobos could accumulate a significant amount of electric charge which may cause significant electrical problems in the space suit and/or scientific equipment. The idea is the solar wind from the sun carrying charged particles may create a complex electrical environment on Phobos which could possibly affect astronauts and scientific equipment on the surface. Phobos has no atmosphere and Mars has no magnetosphere to protect the moon from the charged particles coming from the sun. The negatively charged electrons from the solar wind will interact on the surface of the moon, leading to an excess charge build up during solar wind conditions (coronal eruptions, etc). In the study, researchers modeled the flow of electrons in the solar wind around Phobos, which revealed the buildup of static charge on the dark side and in shadowed regions could reach 10,000 volts in some materials. Therefore, astronauts and rovers who are moving through shadowed regions may also build up static charges. (i.e. friction from walking may transfer charge to the astronauts boots and spacesuits, etc.) When the astronaut touches a conductive material, it could release the charge resulting in static shock, similar to when one walks across a rug and then touches a metal object. Previous studies have also showed a similar build up of charge in the large craters of the Earth’s moon on the north and south poles. The reason this is important is because these craters at the north and south pole contain frozen water/ice. The moon’s orientation keeps these craters fixed in a shadowed region. Similar to Phobos, the Earth’s moon is exposed to the solar wind and streams of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions are bombarding the surface of the moon. The moon also lacks a magnetic field which protects us from the exposure to these charged particles here on Earth. The reason the dark regions are of major concern and not the sunny regions is the following.  The sun’s light itself doesn’t carry an electric charge, however, electrons can be generated through a process known as the photoelectric emission on metal oxides, phenomenon that was pioneered by Albert Einstein (this is what Einstein won the nobel prize for, his contribution to theoretical physics and the photoelectric effect. i.e. this is how the solar panel works). When an electron is kicked out of the surface of a material due to the photoelectric effect, a positive charged surface remains which balances the negative charges brought along by the solar wind electrons. This balancing of charge on the metal oxides may lead to fewer shocks, however, the possibility of static electric shock remains a possibility. A recent presentation at the American Geophysical Meeting in San Francisco reported the following:

“To test whether spacesuits might contribute to electric shocks on the Moon, researchers placed samples of Gore-Tex (a fabric used in spacesuits) into vacuum chambers with a lunar soil simulant that closely mimicked the chemical makeup of lunar regolith. Some of the samples were covered in dust, while others were clean. The team then blasted the samples with plasma to see which samples would be vulnerable to electrical arcing.” [2]

Researchers reported the Gore-Tex samples experienced arcing more of then than the clean samples because soil particles disrupted the uniform surface of the spacesuit. These disruptions allow for electrons to discharge. The research demonstrates that arcing can occur on a spacesuit material within the simulated lunar environment. The question is what kind of damage the arcing will cause and whether this kind of discharge will cause damage to critical equipment or even to the astronauts themselves?

References

  1. W.M.Farrell, J.S.Halekas, S.Fatemi, A.R.Poppe, C.Hartzell, J.R.Marshall, T.J.Stubbs, M.I.Zimmerman, Y.Zheng, “Anticipated electrical environment at Phobos: Nominal and solar storm conditions,” Advances in Space Research, Vol 62, Issue 8, 15 October 2018, Pages 2199-2212, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.009
  2. P33C-09 – Dusty Spacesuit Charging/Arcing in Plasma: Implications for Astronaut Safety at the Lunar Terminator and Far-Side, December 2019, https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm19/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/586063, accessed December 20, 2019.

The Spiritual insights we receive from this type of research is on the effect of the charged particles, the charge clinging to a person, and then it being discharged affecting other people, equipment, or even having the possibility of being life threatening. What does this sound similar to? A parallel may be found in sin’s effect in our lives, it may not seem to affect us or have an immediate impact, but one day, we will bear testimony of how we lived our lives. This is what the Apostle Paul wrote to Timothy in 1 Timothy 5:24-25.

1 Timothy 5:24-25
5:24 The sins of some men are quite evident, going before them to judgment; for others, their sins follow after. 5:25 Likewise also, deeds that are good are quite evident, and those which are otherwise cannot be concealed. (NASB)

Paul writes that for some, their sin is quite evident. For others however, their sins will be revealed later. The idea here is very similar, some people’s sins do not surface until later, while others get caught in the act. Considering the research, static electricity can accumulate without our knowledge, and then discharge when coming in contact with a conducting surface.  Some sins may not be considered significant, but one day however, all will be revealed, Paul goes on to parallel this to good deeds and bad deeds. Another situation that is described in the Torah is the following according to Vayikra / Leviticus 5:1-5.

Vayikra / Leviticus 5:1-5
5:1 ‘Now if a person sins after he hears a public adjuration to testify when he is a witness, whether he has seen or otherwise known, if he does not tell it, then he will bear his guilt. 5:2 ‘Or if a person touches any unclean thing, whether a carcass of an unclean beast or the carcass of unclean cattle or a carcass of unclean swarming things, though it is hidden from him and he is unclean, then he will be guilty. 5:3 ‘Or if he touches human uncleanness, of whatever sort his uncleanness may be with which he becomes unclean, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty. 5:4 ‘Or if a person swears thoughtlessly with his lips to do evil or to do good, in whatever matter a man may speak thoughtlessly with an oath, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty in one of these. 5:5 ‘So it shall be when he becomes guilty in one of these, that he shall confess that in which he has sinned. (NASB, א וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי-תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם-לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָֹא עֲוֹנוֹ: ב אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל-דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם: ג אוֹ כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם: ד אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְֹפָתַיִם לְהָרַע | אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא-יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה: ה וְהָיָה כִי-יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ:)

What is interesting about these Scriptures, is how one may sin by not speaking up to bear witness to a judicial case. The act of keeping silent will cause one to become guilty. It may not seem like such a crime to remain silent, however, we are called to keep justice, and this is a serious enough of a crime for one to become guilty before God! Similarly, one who touches an unclean thing and does not speak up, he will bear his guilt before God, even if the thing is hidden from him (meaning he doesn’t know he touched an unclean thing). Whether the contraction of uncleanness was known or unknown, one will be guilty. Similarly with making a thoughtless oath, he will become guilty and when one becomes guilty, he is to repent and confess his sin. These things speak to how sin may affect our lives, in the example given from Vayikra / Leviticus 5:1-5, these things do not necessarily have an immediate observable effect upon one’s life. In this Torah example, even the most godly of persons may be affected by these types of sins. A good example may be taken from the life of Noah. We are told in the Torah how Noah was a righteous man and he walked with God for 600 years prior to the flood. In the pre-flood world, Noah walked alone and was given the opportunity to begin the human race again following total destruction. Noah built the Ark, and all of the air breathing creatures, along with Noah, his wife, his sons, and their wives were saved. Following the flood, we read the following:

Bereshit / Genesis 9:18-29
9:18 Now the sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem and Ham and Japheth; and Ham was the father of Canaan. 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated. 9:20 Then Noah began farming and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and became drunk, and uncovered himself inside his tent. 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside. 9:23 But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it upon both their shoulders and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned away, so that they did not see their father’s nakedness. 9:24 When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest son had done to him. 9:25 So he said, ‘Cursed be Canaan; A servant of servants He shall be to his brothers.’ 9:26 He also said, ‘Blessed be the Lord, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 9:27 ‘May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant.’ 9:28 Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the flood. 9:29 So all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died. (NASB, יח וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי-נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן-הַתֵּבָה שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן: יט שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי-נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל-הָאָרֶץ: כ וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם: כא וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן-הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה: כב וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי-אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ: כג וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת-הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִֹימוּ עַל-שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ: כד וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר-עָשָֹה לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן: כה וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו: כו וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ: כז יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי-שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ: כח וַיְחִי-נֹחַ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה: כט וַיְהִי כָּל-יְמֵי-נֹחַ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת:)

Now it is interesting, according to Ezekiel 14:20, Noah, Daniel, and Job are listed as the most righteous men in history. But we read here in the narrative following the flood that Noah planted a vineyard, drank wine, became drunk, and lay naked uncovered in his tent. I have always wondered where his wife was, what was she doing at this time? Note that drunkenness and nakedness are always portrayed as shameful in the Scriptures. The interesting point is that just because one has lived a godly life in the past, does not guarantee a godly life in the future. This means that we do not build up an immunity to sin as we grow older. Neither age nor maturity provide protection against temptation. This draws us back to the parallel to the Scientific research on static electric charge. The astronauts who go to the moon, leave their spaceship that landed on the moon, and walk around, they have no means for grounding themselves to prevent the accumulation of electric charge. (This is paralleled to a growing immunity to sin, sin does not work this way.) Similarly, years and years of holiness and righteousness does not guarantee a future life free from sin. We must always be on guard. Constant vigilance is the goal, and those who do live righteously before God, those who try, know their propensity towards sin and live in dependence upon the Lord daily. In the narrative on Noah following the flood, Ham, Noah’s son, saw the nakedness of his father, and he went and told his brothers about it. The brothers carefully approached the tent, they entered with their backs to their father, and covered him with respect and love. When Noah woke, he knew what had taken place, and what Ham had done. So Noah utters a curse against Ham’s son, Canaan. This leads to many questions, What did Ham do that was so bad? Was it all that serious? Why wasn’t Ham punished and why was his son Canaan cursed due to his father’s sin? Why wasn’t Noah punished for his own discretion? The following section from the Torah is a discussion on nakedness according to Vayikra / Leviticus 18:6-25.

Vayikra / Leviticus 18:6-25
18:6 ‘None of you shall approach any blood relative of his to uncover nakedness; I am the Lord. 18:7 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, that is, the nakedness of your mother. She is your mother; you are not to uncover her nakedness. 18:8 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife; it is your father’s nakedness. 18:9 ‘The nakedness of your sister, either your father’s daughter or your mother’s daughter, whether born at home or born outside, their nakedness you shall not uncover. 18:10 ‘The nakedness of your son’s daughter or your daughter’s daughter, their nakedness you shall not uncover; for their nakedness is yours. 18:11 ‘The nakedness of your father’s wife’s daughter, born to your father, she is your sister, you shall not uncover her nakedness. 18:12 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s sister; she is your father’s blood relative. 18:13 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother’s sister, for she is your mother’s blood relative. 18:14 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother; you shall not approach his wife, she is your aunt. 18:15 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness. 18:16 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother’s wife; it is your brother’s nakedness. 18:17 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and of her daughter, nor shall you take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness; they are blood relatives. It is lewdness. 18:18 ‘You shall not marry a woman in addition to her sister as a rival while she is alive, to uncover her nakedness. 18:19 ‘Also you shall not approach a woman to uncover her nakedness during her menstrual impurity. 18:20 ‘You shall not have intercourse with your neighbor’s wife, to be defiled with her. 18:21 ‘You shall not give any of your offspring to offer them to Molech, nor shall you profane the name of your God; I am the Lord. 18:22 ‘You shall not lie with a male as one lies with a female; it is an abomination. 18:23 ‘Also you shall not have intercourse with any animal to be defiled with it, nor shall any woman stand before an animal to mate with it; it is a perversion. 18:24 ‘Do not defile yourselves by any of these things; for by all these the nations which I am casting out before you have become defiled. 18:25 ‘For the land has become defiled, therefore I have brought its punishment upon it, so the land has spewed out its inhabitants. (NASB, ו אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל-כָּל-שְׁאֵר בְּשָֹרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָֹה: ס ז עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ: ס ח עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת-אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא: ס ט עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת-אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת-אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן: ס י עֶרְוַת בַּת-בִּנְךָ אוֹ בַת-בִּתְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן כִּי עֶרְוָתְךָ הֵנָּה: ס יא עֶרְוַת בַּת-אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ מוֹלֶדֶת אָבִיךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ: ס יב עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת-אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה שְׁאֵר אָבִיךָ הִוא: ס יג עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת-אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי-שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא: ס יד עֶרְוַת אֲחִי-אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶל-אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִקְרָב דֹּדָתְךָ הִוא: ס טו עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ: ס טז עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת-אָחִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָחִיךָ הִוא: ס יז עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶת-בַּת-בְּנָהּ וְאֶת-בַּת-בִּתָּהּ לֹא תִקַּח לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה זִמָּה הִוא: יח וְאִשָּׁה אֶל-אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ: יט וְאֶל-אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ: כ וְאֶל-אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא-תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה-בָהּ: כא וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא-תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת-שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה: [שביעי] [רביעי כשהן מחוברין] כב וְאֶת-זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא: כג וּבְכָל-בְּהֵמָה לֹא-תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְטָמְאָה-בָהּ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא-תַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה לְרִבְעָהּ תֶּבֶל הוּא: כד אַל-תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל-אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל-אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר-אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם: כה וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקֹד עֲוֹנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וַתָּקִא הָאָרֶץ אֶת-ישְׁבֶיהָ:)

Here the Scriptures from the Torah speak of sexual violation using the phrase to uncover someone else’s nakedness in all types of contexts (relatives, neighbors, animals, etc). It is also interesting how these things are juxtaposed to a section concerning idolatry and casting one’s children to burn in the fire to Molech.  Comparing the texts:

Bereshit / Genesis 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside. (NASB)

כב וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי-אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ:

Vayikra / Leviticus 18:7 ‘You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, that is, the nakedness of your mother. She is your mother; you are not to uncover her nakedness. (NASB)

ז עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ:

Here we have Noah uncovering his own nakedness, and Ham seeing this. The issue of “what did Ham do wrong?” is that he looked upon his father’s nakedness and with delight and amusement he went and told his brothers. He did not approach his brothers with respect for his father, he came with the attitude “Hey, do you guys want to see something funny?” This reveals something about Ham, he did not have shame or grief toward moral failure, and he disrespected his father. Ham was quick to step on his father’s honor in front of his brothers. This is revealed as the brothers (Shem and Japheth) went with great care so they would not gaze upon their father’s nakedness out of great respect, which is in contrast to Ham’s attitude. Consider the culture we live in today, we probably don’t think this was a very big deal. Our culture would look at what Shem and Japheth did with bewilderment as opposed to Ham. Our culture would say “what is the big deal? So he saw his father naked, who cares?” This kind of reaction is the lesson that we are learning from this study, learning from how easy it is to become insensitive to sin. Like the research on the possibility of static charge on the surface of the moon, simply walking around, watching television, and observing the behavior of our culture can have its effect to desensitize us to sin. Take television as an example, millions and billions of people on the earth have moral filth dumping into their living rooms every night on their televisions. The point is exactly what happened to Ham, we find humor in it when we should be horrified. Ham’s sin may not seem like such a big deal at the time, however it had far reaching consequences. Similar to the research, the simulation of static charge on Phobos led to estimates of static charge as high as 10,000 volts, and the experiments on Gore-Tex with charges reaching as high as 24,000 volts. This accumulation effect of static charge is staggering. Similarly, the trickle down effect of sin from parents to their children is also staggering! Noah’s drunkenness led to Ham’s irreverence and lack of respect. Based upon the curse, and Ham’s behavior, this eventually led to his descendants the Canaanites practicing sexual pagan worship, prostitution, and homosexuality. Notice the accumulation effect in relation to the Canaanites, they were not innocent people, and the moral corruption far exceeded their father Ham. One of the points that we can make concerning Moshe writing Bereshit / Genesis was to show moral decline, and how the Torah reveals to us God’s way of blessing those who obey Him, and cursing those who disobey (Study the last 6 chapters of Devarim / Deuteronomy). Ultimately, these things teach us about our utter dependence upon Him (the Lord) to overcome sin, and the need for God’s help to keep ourselves from the moral contamination of the world. Note how in Vayikra / Leviticus 18, the evil deeds of Canaanites are illustrated in the moral decline described by the words “uncover” and “nakedness.” The seeds of sin sown by their father Ham, come to full bloom and harvest in the lives of his descendants.

An additional thought is how we are commanded to honor father and mother in Shemot / Exodus 20. Paul also wrote the same in Ephesians 6:1-3 reminding us to honor father and mother. Notice something here about Ham, he was married, he had children, and yet he despised his father which brought a curse upon his descendants. Ham was not living at home, he had a wife and family. This command is not just for children living at home. What Shem and Japheth demonstrate for us is mercy, we are to be merciful to our parents, and to others, even in their sin unlike their brother Ham.

The major concepts drawn out from the research is on the accumulation of static charge while walking on the moon. Walking alongside this world without regard for taking care can also lead to sin desensitizing and accumulation in our lives. We have to be careful not to yield to temptation. We learn in the Torah narrative how Shem continued in faithfulness to the Lord, and this led to the blessing of his descendants and eventually God calling a people out through Abraham and ultimately blessing the world through the Messiah Yeshua, all through the line of Shem. The faithfulness of Japheth led to his blessing of being “enlarged” spreading out to the north and west, and throughout Europe. The blessing also included how Japheth would dwell in the tents of Shem which suggests a future expectation of the Gentiles being grafted in to the spiritual blessing of Israel. We who trust in Yeshua the Messiah, believing in the God of Israel, and receiving the indwelling of the Holy Spirit of God, have truly been blessed by dwelling in the tents of Shem, and having a part in the world to come. It is because of these things, all men are called to yield themselves through faith in the Lord, believing in His Messiah Yeshua, and receiving the forgiveness of sins and everlasting life! The first step towards this is to recognize how we are not strong, we are weak. We are prone to sin. We recognize how the flesh drives us towards sin, but the spirit drives us to depend upon the Lord who is able to free us from sin. In the Messiah we receive these things, peace, joy, and the love of God, and most of all, the ability to overcome sin for the glory of God!

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Duane D. Miller received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. Degree in Chemical Engineering from The University of Akron Ohio. He is currently a Chemical Engineering Researcher. Duane’s research expertise has focused upon functional materials development for the control, conversion, and release of process gases in Energy production technologies. His R&D interests include computational chemistry, developing novel technologies for converting biomass to fuels and studying their fundamental interactions during the chemical conversion process. His past experience includes sorbent development for pre- and post-combustion CO2 and SO2 capture, selective absorption of H2S from methane streams, O2 capture for oxy-fuel combustion, photocatalytic reduction of alcohols, NOx reduction catalysis, the development of oxygen carriers to combust fossil fuels (CH4 and coal) for the chemical looping combustion processes, and the extraction of rare earth elements using patent pending sorbents. His research expertise has focused on operando-characterization using Infrared, Raman, and UV-Vis spectroscopy to observe the nature of the catalytic active sites and reaction intermediates under realistic reaction conditions, allowing direct correlation of molecular/electronic structures with catalyst performance during Gas-Solid / Liquid-Solid Adsorption and Photocatalytic Processes with real time online analysis of reaction products using ICP-MS and mass spectrometry. His current work involves a multi-disciplinary approach to developing, understanding, and improving the catalytic gasification of coal and methane, high temperature chemical looping combustion, and the catalytic decomposition and gasification of biomass and coal using novel microwave reactor.​ He has been studying the Hebrew Scriptures and the Torah for 20+ years and sharing what he has learned. The studies developed for MATSATI.COM are freely to be used by everyone, to God be the Glory!

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