Our faith is something that leads us to trusting in the Lord. When we have come to the end of our means the only hope that we have is to trust in the Lord. What happens in our lives when we do not trust in the Lord and seek to live alongside the world, the Lord causes situations to come into our lives that are meant to draw us back to Him and His ways and to turn from sin. We are called to be a holy people, to walk in God’s righteousness, and the wisest choice is to start walking and living this path and not turn to the left or the right. This is how some kings of Israel lived, establishing their rule upon the Lord God and His Word (Isaiah 32:1-4). We are told in the Scriptures that the Spirit of God is that which guides and empowers us to live correctly (Isaiah 34:14-15) and how we recognize that the Lord God Almighty is Lord and King over all (Isaiah 33:5-6, 33:22). The interesting thing is that when one trusts in the ways of this world or trusts in other nations as we see Judah and Jerusalem trusting in Egypt, there is blindness, corruption, destruction, and injustice. We notice this is exactly what is taking place today in the woke liberal ideologies everyone seems to be adopting leads to not having the ability to reason, to think properly, not being able to understand basic biology and ethics such as gender confusion and becoming inflamed with lust male for male and female for female. The natural outcome of trusting in human resources leads to these things, trusting in the world, and seeking to live on the path of sin and death. What we see here in Isaiah chapter 32 is how the Lord God and His Messiah is to be the designated leader of our lives (Isaiah 32:1-8) and the necessary component is the presence of God’s Spirit in our lives (Isaiah 32:9-20). This is why God had revealed to us these truths from the very beginning, the Torah central principle of God dwelling in our midst, is for empowering our lives and circumcising our hearts!
The foolish leader is the one who does not establish God as their primary focus. We note that leaders today set money as their god and do whatever they can to acquire more wealth regardless of the outcomes of their decisions or whom they may hurt. We note something from the biblical narrative, according to 2 Chronicles, King Solomon had the favor of the Lord God of Israel and so God had blessed him greatly.
ספר דברי הימים ב פרק א
א וַיִּתְחַזֵּק שְׁלֹמֹה בֶן-דָּוִיד עַל-מַלְכוּתוֹ וַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ וַיְגַדְּלֵהוּ לְמָעְלָה:
2 Chronicles 1:1
1:1 AND Solomon the son of David was strengthened in his kingdom, and the LORD his God was with him, and magnified him exceedingly. (KJV)
We note here that it says וַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ “and the Lord his God was with him,” this means that as long as Solomon followed the ways of God that he would be successful. When Solomon made an idol out of God’s blessing, he made bad decisions, such as his love for many women from foreign nations according to 1 Kings 11:1-13.
ספר מלכים א פרק יא
א וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת-בַּת-פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת: ב מִן-הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר-יְהֹוָה אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא-תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא-יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת-לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה: ג וַיְהִי-לוֹ נָשִׁים שָֹרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת-לִבּוֹ: ד וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת-לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא-הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם-יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו: ה וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים: ו וַיַּעַשֹ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהֹוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו: ז אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל-פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן: ח וְכֵן עָשָֹה לְכָל-נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן: ט וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהֹוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי-נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם: י וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל-הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי-לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר-צִוָּה יְהֹוָה: יא וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה-זֹּאת עִמָּךְ וְלֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ בְּרִיתִי וְחֻקֹּתַי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי עָלֶיךָ קָרֹעַ אֶקְרַע אֶת-הַמַּמְלָכָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ: יב אַךְ-בְּיָמֶיךָ לֹא אֶעֱשֶֹנָּה לְמַעַן דָּוִד אָבִיךָ מִיַּד בִּנְךָ אֶקְרָעֶנָּה: יג רַק אֶת-כָּל-הַמַּמְלָכָה לֹא אֶקְרָע שֵׁבֶט אֶחָד אֶתֵּן לִבְנֶךָ לְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלַם אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתִּי:
1 Kings 11:1–13
11:1 But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; 11:2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love. 11:3 And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart. 11:4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father. 11:5 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. 11:6 And Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father. 11:7 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon. 11:8 And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods. 11:9 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the LORD God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice, 11:10 And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the LORD commanded. 11:11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant. 11:12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father’s sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. 11:13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake which I have chosen. (KJV 1900)
We see what happened when Solomon disobeyed the word of God, מִן-הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר-יְהֹוָה אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא-תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא-יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת-לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה 11:2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love. (KJV) Solomon loved these other women who were from foreign nations, and they brought their other gods (אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם) with them and Solomon built idols to serve their gods. The poor decision making comes via four steps:
- Not taking God’s Word seriously (2 Corinthians 6:14)
- The heart is captive to something other than God (1 Kings 11:4)
- The devotion for God is lost (1 Kings 11:4)
- The desire to commit evil (1 Kings 11:6).
We note that when we walk with those who are not walking on the path that God wants us to walk upon, then we have the same desire as those who love sin, we get a desire to commit evil and live in sin. Solomon did this and the Scriptures say that he aroused God’s anger towards him, and this led to the Lord God taking his kingdom from him (1 Kings 11:9-11) and raising an adversary against him (see 1 Kings 11:28 and 11:40). Solomon’s decisions were based upon his emotions and lust which caused him to turn from God and from His ways. When this happens, there is a doublemindedness (James 1:5-8) that occurs, and one will love one and hate the other. The decisions that Solomon made brought destruction right to his doorstep, and this is what we read the Scriptures telling us happens to those who refuse to listen to the Lord God of Israel (Devarim / Deuteronomy 28). Solomon who was given such great wisdom from God, because of his decision to turn from the Lord to serve foreign gods, his wisdom turned into foolishness and sinfulness. What these things are teaching us is when we make the decision to trust in the Lord God and live our lives according to His Word, we make the best decisions in life and this affects not just us but also others who are around us too! (Tehillim / Psalms 1:6)
Isaiah begins saying the following according to Isaiah 32:1.
ספר ישעיה פרק לב
א הֵן לְצֶדֶק יִמְלָךְ-מֶלֶךְ וּלְשָֹרִים לְמִשְׁפָּט יָשֹרוּ: ב וְהָיָה-אִישׁ כְּמַחֲבֵא-רוּחַ וְסֵתֶר זָרֶם כְּפַלְגֵי-מַיִם בְּצָיוֹן כְּצֵל סֶלַע-כָּבֵד בְּאֶרֶץ עֲיֵפָה:
Isaiah 32:1 states, “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment. (הֵן לְצֶדֶק יִמְלָךְ-מֶלֶךְ וּלְשָֹרִים לְמִשְׁפָּט יָשֹרוּ)” Isaiah 32:2 “And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. (וְהָיָה-אִישׁ כְּמַחֲבֵא-רוּחַ וְסֵתֶר זָרֶם כְּפַלְגֵי-מַיִם בְּצָיוֹן כְּצֵל סֶלַע-כָּבֵד בְּאֶרֶץ עֲיֵפָה)” It is not known whether verse one is a messianic prophecy or not. Here the major question is whether this is a normal human being, or someone greater? The ideal king is the one who chooses to set in order his life and his kingdom based upon the Word of God! The former prophecies that characterize the Messiah of God are from Isaiah 9:6-7 and 11:1-9.
ספר ישעיה פרק ט
ה כִּי-יֶלֶד יֻלַּד-לָנוּ בֵּן נִתַּן-לָנוּ וַתְּהִי הַמִּשְֹרָה עַל-שִׁכְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלֶא יוֹעֵץ אֵל גִּבּוֹר אֲבִי-עַד שַֹר-שָׁלוֹם: ו לְםַרְבֵּה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְֹרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין-קֵץ עַל-כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל-מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד-עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶֹה-זֹּאת:
9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: And the government shall be upon his shoulder: And his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. 9:7 Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, Upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, To order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. (KJV 1900)
ספר ישעיה פרק יא
א וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה: ב וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהֹוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהֹוָה: ג וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהֹוָה וְלֹא-לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא-לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ: ד וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי-אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה-אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְֹפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע: ה וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו: ו וְגָר זְאֵב עִם-כֶּבֶשֹ וְנָמֵר עִם-גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם: ז וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל-תֶּבֶן: ח וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל-חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה: ט לֹא-יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא-יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל-הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי-מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת-יְהֹוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים:
11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots: 11:2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD; 11:3 And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: And he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. 11:5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins. 11:6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. 11:7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; Their young ones shall lie down together: And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 11:8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den. 11:9 They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea. (KJV 1900)
In Isaiah 9:5 Isaiah says וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלֶא יוֹעֵץ אֵל גִּבּוֹר אֲבִי-עַד שַֹר-שָׁלוֹ “And his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace” and אֵין-קֵץ עַל-כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל-מַמְלַכְתּוֹ “there shall be no end, Upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom” which establish the messiah as being both a king and having a kingdom. Isaiah 11:1 states וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots” meaning that he will be from Israel and specifically from the tribe of Judah being filled with wisdom, knowledge, godly counsel, and the fear of the Lord. When Isaiah says הֵן לְצֶדֶק יִמְלָךְ-מֶלֶךְ וּלְשָֹרִים לְמִשְׁפָּט יָשֹרוּ “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment” this statement is consistent with the previous occurrences of the idealistic messianic king who God was going to send to save, deliver, and guide His people. Isaiah’s message thus far has been to demonstrate the how and why the Lord God is displeased with Judah and Jerusalem, because of their pride, their injustice, and their idolatry, and their refusal to trust in the God of their fathers, the God of Israel. There may be a contrasting perspective here to the princes and rulers of the land who are corrupt (Isaiah 28:14, 29:14, 30:4, 31:9) as compared to the man of God who seeks the will of our Father in heaven before seeking any other counsel. A text comparison to the TgJ and the LXX reveal the following:
The LXX translates saying, 1 ἰδοὺ γὰρ βασιλεὺς δίκαιος βασιλεύσει, καὶ ἄρχοντες μετὰ κρίσεως ἄρξουσιν. 2 καὶ ἔσται ὁ ἄνθρωπος κρύπτων τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ καὶ κρυβήσεται ὡς ἀφʼ ὕδατος φερομένου, καὶ φανήσεται ἐν Σιων ὡς ποταμὸς φερόμενος ἔνδοξος ἐν γῇ διψώσῃ. 1 For look, a righteous king will reign, and rulers will lead with judgment. 2 And the person will keep hiding his words, and he will be hidden as if from rushing water, and he will appear in Zion like a rushing river, esteemed in a thirsting land. (LES) Here the LXX translates that the righteous king will rule with κρίσεως (justice). In the LXX κρίνω occurs over 260× with a variety of senses. It renders a large number of Hebrew terms, but mainly the verbs שׁפט, “to decide, judge, rule” (c. 110×, e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 16:5, Shemot / Exodus 5:21, Devarim / Deuteronomy 1:16), ריב, “to dispute, complain, bring a lawsuit” (25×, e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 26:21, Judges 21:22, 1 Samuel 24:16), and דין, “to plead a cause, judge, vindicate” (25×, e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 15:14, Devarim / Deuteronomy 32:36, Jeremiah 5:28). Among various compounds, the most common are διακρίνω (over 25×, e.g., Shemot / Exodus 18:16) and συγκρίνω (13×, often in the sense “to interpret,” e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 41:12-15). The noun κρίσις occurs c. 270×. It most frequently renders the word מִשְׁפָּט (c. 135×, e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 28:19), which not only means “decision, judgment” but also has various other senses, such as “dispute, legal claim” (e.g., 2 Samuel 15:4), “law, ordinance” (e.g., Shemot / Exodus 15:25), and “justice, fairness” (e.g., Bereshit / Genesis 18:19). The point is that the king will rule in justice by the Word of God. The TgJ translates saying, הָא לְקֻשטָא יִמלֹוך מַלכָא וְצַדִיקַיָא לְמַעְבַד פֹורעָנוּת דִין מִן עַמְמַיָא יִתרַבֹון׃ וִיהֹון צַדִיקַיָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם רַשִיעַיָא כְמָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם זָרָמִית יְתוּבוּן וְיִתרַבֹון וְיִתקַבַל אֻלפָנְהֹון בִפרִיַע כִפצִידֵי מַיָא דְנָגְדִין בַאְרַע צָהְיָא כִטלַל כֵיף מַקַר בַאְרַע מְשַלהְיָא׃ 1 Behold, a King shall reign in truth, and the righteous shall be magnified to execute just vengeance on the people. 2 And the just that were hidden because of the wicked, as those who hide themselves on account of a storm, shall return, and shall be magnified, and their instruction shall be received quickly, like the waters that flow into a dry land, like the shadow of a great rock in a parched land. (TgJ) Here the Targum translates the righteous being hidden because of the wicked and how the righteous ruler will lead to their coming out and showing themselves to provide instruction for the people. This may possibly follow from our previous discussions in Isaiah 30-31 how the path of righteousness is hidden from those who choose to live in unrepentant sin. We note this is also what Yeshua did when he quoted Isaiah saying that, “they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise they might turn and be forgiven” (Mark 4:12) when his disciples asked him why he always speaks in parables. The reason being, the wicked choose to walk a different path, they choose to turn their backs on God, and they choose to be intentional in stopping up their ears so they cannot hear because they love their sins. The righteousness of the king who serves the Lord places all of these things into contrast, to demonstrate how the ways of God are elevating, encouraging, and establishing! The willingness to walk in God’s ways, to struggle with these truths found in the Scriptures as they are applied to our lives, is the mark of a good king, and of those who are God’s children! It is also important to note that we are being told that there is a need for our leaders to not be predators of the people, that leaders should be sources of protection and support. This is exemplified in the NT text speaking of Yeshua the Messiah who is the shepherd of God’s people (John 10:11) and who teaches truth and justice. (Matthew 20:28)
Isaiah goes on saying the following according to Isaiah 32:3-4.
ספר ישעיה פרק לב
ג וְלֹא תִשְׁעֶינָה עֵינֵי רֹאִים וְאָזְנֵי שֹׁמְעִים תִּקְשַׁבְנָה: ד וּלְבַב נִמְהָרִים יָבִין לָדָעַת וּלְשׁוֹן עִלְּגִים תְּמַהֵר לְדַבֵּר צָחוֹת:
Isaiah 32:3 states, “And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken. (וְלֹא תִשְׁעֶינָה עֵינֵי רֹאִים וְאָזְנֵי שֹׁמְעִים תִּקְשַׁבְנָה)” Isaiah 32:4 “The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly. (וּלְבַב נִמְהָרִים יָבִין לָדָעַת וּלְשׁוֹן עִלְּגִים תְּמַהֵר לְדַבֵּר צָחוֹת)” Here is a discussion on the spiritual transformation of the people. This reminds us of Yeshua’s words again according to Mark 4:10-12 and 8:14-21.
4:10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 4:11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 4:12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. (KJV, Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ· ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται, ἵνα βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν, καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν, μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς.)
8:14 Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf. 8:15 And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod. 8:16 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have no bread. 8:17 And when Jesus knew it, he saith unto them, Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? perceive ye not yet, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened? 8:18 Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember? 8:19 When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve. 8:20 And when the seven among four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? And they said, Seven. 8:21 And he said unto them, How is it that ye do not understand? (KJV, Καὶ ἐπελάθοντο λαβεῖν ἄρτους καὶ εἰ μὴ ἕνα ἄρτον οὐκ εἶχον μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ. καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων· ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου. καὶ διελογίζοντο πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχουσιν. καὶ γνοὺς λέγει αὐτοῖς· τί διαλογίζεσθε ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχετε; οὔπω νοεῖτε οὐδὲ συνίετε; πεπωρωμένην ἔχετε τὴν καρδίαν ὑμῶν; ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες οὐ βλέπετε καὶ ὦτα ἔχοντες οὐκ ἀκούετε; καὶ οὐ μνημονεύετε, ὅτε τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους ἔκλασα εἰς τοὺς πεντακισχιλίους , πόσους κοφίνους κλασμάτων πλήρεις ἤρατε; λέγουσιν αὐτῷ· δώδεκα. ὅτε τοὺς ἑπτὰ εἰς τοὺς τετρακισχιλίους, πόσων σπυρίδων πληρώματα κλασμάτων ἤρατε; καὶ λέγουσιν [αὐτῷ]· ἑπτά. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· οὔπω συνίετε;)
This is the basic concept here from what Isaiah is teaching, how the wicked do not seek the will of the Father in heaven, and so their understanding will be clouded to prevent their making further progress beyond the basic principles of Teshuvah. We note that this is the primary point, repentance and turning from sin take the primacy in our lives, and these come through seeking God and His truth and holy ways. Notice how what Yeshua says is quoting from the Torah according to Devarim / Deuteronomy 29:1-4.
ספר דברים פרק כח
סט אֵלֶּה דִבְרֵי הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר-צִוָּה יְהוָֹה אֶת-מֹשֶׁה לִכְרֹת אֶת-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מִלְּבַד הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר-כָּרַת אִתָּם בְּחֹרֵב: פ
ספר דברים פרק כט
[שביעי] א וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל-כָּל-יִשְֹרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם אֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה יְהוָֹה לְעֵינֵיכֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְפַרְעֹה וּלְכָל-עֲבָדָיו וּלְכָל-אַרְצוֹ: ב הַמַּסּוֹת הַגְּדֹלֹת אֲשֶׁר רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ הָאֹתֹת וְהַמֹּפְתִים הַגְּדֹלִים הָהֵם: ג וְלֹא-נָתַן יְהֹוָה לָכֶם לֵב לָדַעַת וְעֵינַיִם לִרְאוֹת וְאָזְנַיִם לִשְׁמֹעַ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
Devarim / Deuteronomy 29:1–4
29:1 These are the words of the covenant, which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covenant which he made with them in Horeb. 29:2 And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them, Ye have seen all that the LORD did before your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh, and unto all his servants, and unto all his land; 29:3 The great temptations which thine eyes have seen, the signs, and those great miracles: 29:4 Yet the LORD hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day. (KJV)
What we see here is Moshe telling us that it is the Lord God who gives us a heart to perceive, eyes to see, and ears to hear! Our relationship with God is what leads to having the ability to understand truth! This is the greater point that Yeshua is making, of our relationship with God and our true intention. Spiritual blindness, deafness, and stammering are to those who do not know the Lord. Here Isaiah speaks of a total transformation of the people, towards seeing and hearing from God, their blindness and deafness will be removed. The blindness and deafness according to Isaiah 6:10 was the outcome of Isaiah’s prophecy since they were not sons and daughters of God. Spiritual clarity and being able to perceive the truth come following our submitting to God’s ways. This is a significant point since the refusal to submit to God’s Word leads to the quickest way to deception, just as we read according to Devarim / Deuteronomy 28. When one turns from and refuses to submit his life to the Lord, this leads to not being able to discern the differences between good and evil (Isaiah 5:18-23, Mishley / Proverbs 4:14-19, John 7:17). This is why those who take hold of the liberal woke ideologies today are utterly blind and unable to see the truth! Spiritual clarity is the result of faithfulness, of seeking God’s truth according to His Word in the Scriptures and appropriating that truth into one’s life to make it a part of his or her life. This naturally leads to submitting to the Lord according to His Word.
Isaiah goes on saying the following according to Isaiah 32:5.
ספר ישעיה פרק לב
ה לֹא-יִקָּרֵא עוֹד לְנָבָל נָדִיב וּלְכִילַי לֹא יֵאָמֵר שׁוֹעַ:
Isaiah 32:5 states, “The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful. (לֹא-יִקָּרֵא עוֹד לְנָבָל נָדִיב וּלְכִילַי לֹא יֵאָמֵר שׁוֹעַ)” It is interesting here that we have a parallelism taking place in this verse saying:
לֹא-יִקָּרֵא עוֹד לְנָבָל נָדִיב
וּלְכִילַי לֹא יֵאָמֵר שׁוֹעַ
Here in the first half of the verse, it says that a נָבָל fool will no longer be called a נָדִיב. This word נָדִיב means according to HALOT lexicon “one who distributes according to his own will, the nobleman.” Notice how this definition sounds as if this is one who by his own will makes himself to be a nobleman, someone of importance. It is also interesting how the KJV translates נָדִיב to mean “liberal.” Isn’t this what the liberals do, to make themselves out to be of noble character, assuming that they are privileged in some way that they deserve more than everyone else and this deserving does not come with hard work but with a lazy attitude? The facts are that everything in life takes a lot of hard work! Nothing comes for free, and even our salvation, it was not free, Yeshua paid with His life, and then as people of faith, this does not come free, we must be a faithful people! This takes sacrifice on our part, to humble ourselves, and walk in God’s ways turning from sin. This takes effort! There are a lot of preachers today that speak of a different kind of faith, one that is easy and one that is not coupled to a life of faithfulness. Remember what Yeshua said, Matthew 16:24 “Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.” (KJV *24 Τότε ⸂ὁ Ἰησοῦς⸃ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ· εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι.) He says that we are to deny ourselves if we are to be his disciples. In the second half of the verse, וּלְכִילַי לֹא יֵאָמֵר שׁוֹעַ this word וּלְכִילַי is not well understood which is why it is transliterated as “churl” in the KJV. here there is a word play:
לְנָבָל ← לְכִילַי
נָדִיב ← שׁוֹעַ
This is the idea of the fool is paralleled to the כֵּלַי which in modern Hebrew means “tool.” Those who are native English speakers recognize how this can be used as an English slang word “you’re a tool” meaning that you are annoying or a fool. This parallelism really suggests the same thing is going on here in the Hebrew text. The נָדִיב ← שׁוֹעַ is understood where the word שׁוֹעַ can mean “to shout” and liberals, boy do they like to shout and make a scene for their own purposes calling out privilege privilege, give me privilege, “I deserve… etc.” Yeshua’s own words declare how we are to approach life, in humbleness of heart, seeking the Lord, and with a servant attitude. Here Isaiah speaks of these things being broken, that there is clarity that is coming to those who walk around as fools in their ideologies (liberalism). We note how these ideologies confuse these things, how the fool confuses himself for a nobleman, and expects selfish things to be delivered to him on a silver platter. We note that this is plain to see today, that in society those who have managed to gain power over others, have the tendency to consider themselves as great and deserving persons regardless of their true character. The point is that it is easy to recognize a fool for who he is regardless of how much power or how much wealth he has!
Isaiah goes on saying the following according to Isaiah 32:6-7.
ספר ישעיה פרק לב
ו כִּי נָבָל נְבָלָה יְדַבֵּר וְלִבּוֹ יַעֲשֶֹה-אָוֶן לַעֲשֹוֹת חֹנֶף וּלְדַבֵּר אֶל-יְהֹוָה תּוֹעָה לְהָרִיק נֶפֶשׁ רָעֵב וּמַשְׁקֵה צָמֵא יַחְסִיר: ז וְכֵלַי כֵּלָיו רָעִים הוּא זִמּוֹת יָעָץ לְחַבֵּל עֲנִוִּים [עֲנִיִּים] בְּאִמְרֵי-שֶׁקֶר וּבְדַבֵּר אֶבְיוֹן מִשְׁפָּט:
Isaiah 32:6 states, “For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practice hypocrisy, and to utter error against the LORD, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail. (כִּי נָבָל נְבָלָה יְדַבֵּר וְלִבּוֹ יַעֲשֶֹה-אָוֶן לַעֲשֹוֹת חֹנֶף וּלְדַבֵּר אֶל-יְהֹוָה תּוֹעָה לְהָרִיק נֶפֶשׁ רָעֵב וּמַשְׁקֵה צָמֵא יַחְסִיר)” Israel 32:7 “The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right. (וְכֵלַי כֵּלָיו רָעִים הוּא זִמּוֹת יָעָץ לְחַבֵּל עֲנִוִּים [עֲנִיִּים] בְּאִמְרֵי-שֶׁקֶר וּבְדַבֵּר אֶבְיוֹן מִשְׁפָּט)” In Isaiah 32:6 he speaks explicitly what kind of people these נבלים fools are they are quick to work iniquity in their hearts, to speak נְבָלָה foolishness what the KJV translates as “villany” and וְלִבּוֹ יַעֲשֶֹה-אָוֶן work iniquity in the heart. This suggests these types of people are those who have dark thoughts to do evil, and this that is in the heart is a great amount of error against the Lord and His Word. The text comparison reveals the following from the LXX and the TgJ.
The LXX translates saying, 6 ὁ γὰρ μωρὸς μωρὰ λαλήσει, καὶ ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ μάταια νοήσει τοῦ συντελεῖν ἄνομα καὶ λαλεῖν πρὸς κύριον πλάνησιν τοῦ διασπεῖραι ψυχὰς πεινώσας καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς τὰς διψώσας κενὰς ποιῆσαι. 7 ἡ γὰρ βουλὴ τῶν πονηρῶν ἄνομα βουλεύσεται καταφθεῖραι ταπεινοὺς ἐν λόγοις ἀδίκοις καὶ διασκεδάσαι λόγους ταπεινῶν ἐν κρίσει. 6 For the fool will speak foolish things, and his heart will think pointless things, to accomplish lawless things and to speak error against the Lord, to scatter hungering souls; and he will cause the souls that thirst to be empty. 7 For the counsel of evil people will plan lawless things, to ruin low people by unjust words and to scatter lowly people’s words in judgment. (LES) We note how these are the ways of the leaders today, and of the cult leader who holds authority over others by his position as leader. This speaks to how utterly lost these people are turning those who are seeking truth from the true ways of God. The TgJ translates saying, אְרֵי רַשִיעַיָא רִשעָא מְמַלְלִין וּבלִבְהֹון מִתעַשְתִין אֹונֵיס לְמַעְבַד שְקַר וּלמַלָלָא קֳדָם יוי סָטיָא לְשַלהָאָה נְפַש צַדִיקַיָא דִמחַמְדִין לְאֻלפָנָא הָא כְכָפְנָא לְלַחמָא וּפִתגָמֵי אֹורָיתָא דְאִנוּן כְצָהְיָא לְמַיָא מְדַמַן לְבַטָלָא׃ וְרַשִיעַיָא דְעוּבָדֵיהֹון בִישִין וְאִינוּן עַל עֵיצַת חְטִין מִתמַלכִין לְחַבָלָא עִנוְתָנַיָא בְמִלֵי שְקַר וּפִתגָמֵי חַשִיכַיָא בְדִינָא׃ 6 For the wicked will talk wickedness, and in their heart they meditate violence, to practise falsehood, and to speak revolt against the Lord, to weary the soul of the righteous, who long after instruction, as the hungry after bread; and after the words of the law, which are like water to him that is athirst, they purpose to make to cease. 7 And the wicked, whose works are evil, take counsel with sinners to destroy the poor with lying words, and the words of the needy in judgment. (TgJ) The נָבָל is one of the strongest words against that is used in the Tanakh that describes a person who has intentionally rejected the ways of God and chosen to worship themselves and set themselves up as a deserving privilege and in doing so setting themselves on the path of death! The dangers of what Isaiah is speaking of here is how those who do these things set themselves up to failure since the underlying attitudes lead to turning from God’s ways and turning one’s back on the Lord. This folly is a pattern of life which is opposed to righteousness, holiness, and truth. In addition, these are those who oppress the helpless. The point is those who choose to walk in these ways do not seek the ways of God. The Lord God of Israel is One in whom we can rely upon! We note something on the importance of denying ourselves. This statement that Yeshua makes concerning our being his disciples and denying ourselves is very important and should not be quickly glossed over. The question is “how do I deny myself?” This may be described in a slightly different way, such as “you must give up any and all rights that you have.” When we rephrase what Yeshua is saying in this way we note how this is the servant attitude. This is the entire idea of submitting our lives to the Lord and to His Word! The following are a few examples:
- We give up the right to take revenge on others (Romans 12:19–20)
- We give up the right to hate our enemy (Matthew 5:43–47)
- We give up the right to be honored and served (Mark 10:42–45)
- We give up the right to live by our own rules (John 14:23–24)
- We give up the right to hold a grudge against others (Colossians 3:13)
- We give up the right to complain (Philipians 2:14, 1 Thessalonians 5:18)
- We give up the right to put self-first (Philippians 2:3–4)
- We give up the right to express one’s sexuality freely (1 Corinthians. 6:18–20)
- We give up the right to rebel against authority (1 Peter 2:13–15)
These are only a few of the ways in which we can do as Yeshua had stated, we are to deny ourselves and take up our cross meaning that we die to these things!
The Targum Jonathan is an Aramaic and Rabbinic translation of the book of Isaiah and therefore it is a valuable resource for our continuing to study the book of Isaiah!
תרגום יונתן בן עוזיאל אל ישעיה פרק לב:א-ז
א הָא לְקֻשטָא יִמלֹוך מַלכָא וְצַדִיקַיָא לְמַעְבַד פֹורעָנוּת דִין מִן עַמְמַיָא יִתרַבֹון׃ ב וִיהֹון צַדִיקַיָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם רַשִיעַיָא כְמָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם זָרָמִית יְתוּבוּן וְיִתרַבֹון וְיִתקַבַל אֻלפָנְהֹון בִפרִיַע כִפצִידֵי מַיָא דְנָגְדִין בַאְרַע צָהְיָא כִטלַל כֵיף מַקַר בַאְרַע מְשַלהְיָא׃ ג וְלָא יִטַמטְמָן עֵינֵי צַדִיקַיָא וְאֻדנֵי מְקַבְלֵי אוּלפָן יַצִיתָן׃ ד וּלבַב מְהַרהְרִין יִסבַר לְמִידַע וְלִישָנְהֹון דַהְוָה כְלֵים יֹוחֵי לְמַלָלָא בְצַחצְחָן׃ ה לָא יִתאְמַר עֹוד לְרַשִיעַיָא צַדִיקַיָא וּלדַעְבַרוּ עַל מֵימְרֵיה לָא יִתאְמַר תַקִיפִין׃ ו אְרֵי רַשִיעַיָא רִשעָא מְמַלְלִין וּבלִבְהֹון מִתעַשְתִין אֹונֵיס לְמַעְבַד שְקַר וּלמַלָלָא קֳדָם יוי סָטיָא לְשַלהָאָה נְפַש צַדִיקַיָא דִמחַמְדִין לְאֻלפָנָא הָא כְכָפְנָא לְלַחמָא וּפִתגָמֵי אֹורָיתָא דְאִנוּן כְצָהְיָא לְמַיָא מְדַמַן לְבַטָלָא׃ ז וְרַשִיעַיָא דְעוּבָדֵיהֹון בִישִין וְאִינוּן עַל עֵיצַת חְטִין מִתמַלכִין לְחַבָלָא עִנוְתָנַיָא בְמִלֵי שְקַר וּפִתגָמֵי חַשִיכַיָא בְדִינָא׃
Targum Jonathan son of Uziel Isaiah 32:1-7
32:1 Behold, a King shall reign in truth, and the righteous shall be magnified to execute just vengeance on the people. 32:2 And the just that were hidden because of the wicked, as those who hide themselves on account of a storm, shall return, and shall be magnified, and their instruction shall be received quickly, like the waters that flow into a dry land, like the shadow of a great rock in a parched land. 32:3 And the eyes of the righteous shall not be shut, and the ears of those who receive instruction shall hear. 32:4 Even the heart of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of those that was tied shall be ready to speak plainly. 32:5 And the wicked man shall no more be called just, and he that transgresses against His WORD shall not be called mighty. 32:6 For the wicked will talk wickedness, and in their heart they meditate violence, to practice falsehood, and to speak revolt against the Lord, to weary the soul of the righteous, who long after instruction, as the hungry after bread; and after the words of the law, which are like water to him that is athirst, they purpose to make to cease. 32:7 And the wicked, whose works are evil, take counsel with sinners to destroy the poor with lying words, and the words of the needy in judgment. (TgJ)
We note that when the righteous multiply the land is filled with justice. This is what Isaiah is saying according to the TgJ translation, א הָא לְקֻשטָא יִמלֹוך מַלכָא וְצַדִיקַיָא לְמַעְבַד פֹורעָנוּת דִין מִן עַמְמַיָא יִתרַבֹון׃ 32:1 Behold, a King shall reign in truth, and the righteous shall be magnified to execute just vengeance on the people. (TgJ) Here the righteous execute just vengeance speaks of justice being served. To serve someone his or her rightful punishment due to their crimes against humanity. These things are all biblical concepts, and it is because of the righteousness of God that our society has this concept of justice. To Bring someone to justice usually entails bringing someone to trial, making a conviction, and then deciding how the punishment fits the crime and then he or she who committed the crime is put in jail and pays fines etc. People who want someone brought to justice usually feel that the person has committed a crime and escaped without punishment. We see a lot of this today how people commit a crime, and they are not prosecuted because of their position of power. There are many crimes being committed against humanity today, and the major task of the mainstream media today (MSM) is to hide the truth, keep the public in the dark, to keep the public attention on something other than what is actually taking place. This is how this world confuses and hides the truth. King Solomon wrote in Mishley / Proverbs 21:15 When justice is done, it brings joy to the righteous, but terror to evildoers. (שִׂמְחָ֣ה לַ֭צַּדִּיק עֲשֹׂ֣ות מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּ֝מְחִתָּ֗ה לְפֹ֣עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן׃) The reason justice brings terror to the evildoers is because they love their sins and they will do anything to continue in them. Rashi interprets these things in the following way according to his commentary:
Rashi on Isaiah 32:1 Parts 1-2
הן לצדק ימלך מלך. הן אין משפט מלך למלוך כי אם לעשות משפט צדק: Behold, for righteousness shall a king reign Behold a king has no right to reign except to execute righteous judgment.
ולשרים למשפט ישורו. ועל מי יש לו למלוך על שרים אשר למשפט ישורו, ואמר הנביא זאת על אחז שהיה רשע אבל חזקיהו בנו ימלוך וכדי הוא: and over princes who rule with justice And over whom should he reign? Over princes who rule with justice. The prophet says this concerning Ahaz, who was a wicked man, but Hezekiah his son shall rule, and he is worthy. ([Manuscripts read:] And he is worthy of reigning.)
The king (מלך) and his princes (שרים) these are references to the ministers of state, judges, and magistrates under the king, they are tol rule in judgment. This means that they are to operate their offices with integrity and faithfulness. We certainly do not see much of this anymore these days! Is this because righteous people no longer run for office? Is it because the Word of God has been watered down to tickle the ears of the listeners? Could it be the love of money that causes one to become corrupted? When the wicked multiply, Isaiah says that those who are just must hide themselves. ב וִיהֹון צַדִיקַיָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם רַשִיעַיָא כְמָא דְמִיטַמרִין מִן קֳדָם זָרָמִית יְתוּבוּן וְיִתרַבֹון וְיִתקַבַל אֻלפָנְהֹון בִפרִיַע כִפצִידֵי מַיָא דְנָגְדִין בַאְרַע צָהְיָא כִטלַל כֵיף מַקַר בַאְרַע מְשַלהְיָא׃ 32:2 And the just that were hidden because of the wicked, as those who hide themselves on account of a storm, shall return, and shall be magnified, and their instruction shall be received quickly, like the waters that flow into a dry land, like the shadow of a great rock in a parched land. (TgJ) Here the wicked are paralleled to a violent storm that comes causing destruction. When the storm is over, when it has run its course and the wicked are removed from their positions of power, the righteous will be magnified and their instruction and lives will be like flowing waters in a dry land producing a huge bounty of produce (fruit, etc). Rashi goes on saying the following on Isaiah 32:2.
Rashi on Isaiah 32:2 Parts 1-4
והיה איש. הגבור ביראת הקב”ה הוא חזקיה יהיה לישראל:
And the man shall be The hero in the fear of the Holy One, blessed be He – that is Hezekiah – shall be for Israel.
כמחבא רוח. כמחסה סלע שנחבאים בו מפני רוח ונסתרים שם מפני חורב כן יבטחו בו הנותרים מי’ השבטי’:
as a hiding place from the wind As a shelter of a rock, where people hide because of the wind, and they hide there because of the heat ([mss. read:] because of the rain), so will those remaining from the ten tribes trust in him.
בציון. ל’ יובש ציה:
in an arid land. (בְּצָיוֹן) an expression of dryness, desolation (צִיָּה).
כצל סלע כבד בארץ עיפה. במקום שמש שהארץ עיפה שם וחריבה ותאבה לצל:
as the shade of a huge rock in a weary land In a sunny place, where the earth is weary and dry and yearning for shade.
The rabbis always draw us back to Hezekiah when discussing these verses on a righteous king. The righteous king prepares for his people, especially when he sees troubles ahead, take for example what Hezekiah did during his reign:
Actions of King Hezekiah
- Tunneling a shaft through 1,748 feet of solid rock to supply water to the city in time of siege (2 Kings 20:20).
- Stopping up springs around Jerusalem that could supply water to an attacking army (2 Chronicles 32:1-4).
- Extending and strengthening the wall of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32:5).
- Increasing the production of shields and weapons (2 Chronicles 32:5).
Hezekiah was a remarkable king that was used by God to rescue Jerusalem from the Assyrians and who led the people in a revival for the God of Israel. Hezekiah’s reign was from 716-687 BC. During his reign he enacted sweeping reforms which included mandates for worshiping the God of Israel, destruction of foreign gods, and removal of foreign gods from the Temple in Jerusalem, etc. A summary of his reign, Hezekiah was the first king since David to keep the Lord’s commandments, restore right worship for the people, and to honor Him as the True God. Because King Hezekiah put God first in everything he did, God caused him and his kingdom to prosper. Hezekiah “held fast to the Lord and did not stop following him; he kept the commands the Lord had given Moses. And the Lord was with him; he was successful in whatever he undertook” (2 Kings 18:6-7). Note how the Lord also keeping His promises also worked a miracle protecting Jerusalem. “That night the angel of the Lord went out and put to death a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the Assyrian camp. When the people got up the next morning—there were all the dead bodies!” (2 Kings 19:35). The remaining Assyrians quickly broke camp and withdrew in defeat. “So the Lord saved Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem. . . . He took care of them on every side” (2 Chronicles 32:22). These things are written for our encouragement, to walk in God’s ways, to follow in the footsteps of the Messiah Yeshua, the model of faithfulness here in King Hezekiah’s life, we can expect the Lord God to work powerfully in our lives as well!
Isaiah continues saying the following, ג וְלָא יִטַמטְמָן עֵינֵי צַדִיקַיָא וְאֻדנֵי מְקַבְלֵי אוּלפָן יַצִיתָן׃ 32:3 And the eyes of the righteous shall not be shut, and the ears of those who receive instruction shall hear. ד וּלבַב מְהַרהְרִין יִסבַר לְמִידַע וְלִישָנְהֹון דַהְוָה כְלֵים יֹוחֵי לְמַלָלָא בְצַחצְחָן׃ 32:4 Even the heart of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of those that was tied shall be ready to speak plainly. ה לָא יִתאְמַר עֹוד לְרַשִיעַיָא צַדִיקַיָא וּלדַעְבַרוּ עַל מֵימְרֵיה לָא יִתאְמַר תַקִיפִין׃ 32:5 And the wicked man shall no more be called just, and he that transgresses against His WORD shall not be called mighty. (TgJ) These things describe a revival, how the wicked will reform their ways, they will be given ears to hear and eyes to see the salvation of God and the great value in living their lives for the Lord. The most important aspect is how the Lord God creates this miracle of reformation, or calling men to repentance and turning from their evil ways. This is a miracle! Just like uncleanness can be spread through physical contact, sin also has this transmission property if we heap people around us who walk in unrepentant sin. Righteousness on the other hand starts from within, something that God leads us in, and this leads then to how we live our lives and the way we speak. The commentator Likutei Moharan writes the following concerning these things.
Likutei Moharan, Part II 2:5 Part 1
ה וּשְׁלֵמוּת הַדִּבּוּר הוּא בְּחִינַת לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, כִּי כָל לְשׁוֹנוֹת הָעַמִּים הֵם חֲסֵרִים, וְאֵין לָהֶם שְׁלֵמוּת, כִּי נִקְרָאִין לְשׁוֹן עִלְּגִים (ישעיהו ל״ב:ד׳), וְאֵין שְׁלֵמוּת רַק לִלְשׁוֹן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ.
5. Now, perfected speech is the concept of the Holy Tongue. All the languages of the nations are lacking. They are imperfect and are called “the tongue of stammerers” (Isaiah 32:4). Perfection applies only to the Holy Tongue.
This commentary speaks of the “Holy Tongue” from the sense of the language through which God had revealed Himself, the Hebrew language. The languages of the nations are גימגם (stammering) and the reason for this is that God had not revealed Himself through these other languages. The language here is coupled to the false ways of the nations, and the significance of seeking out God’s ways, drawing near to Him in God’s holy Word. These things direct us back to the importance of being in the Word of God daily! Rashi writes the following:
Rashi on Isaiah 32:4 Part 1
ולבב נמהרים יבין לדעת. לא כמו שעכשיו השמן לב העם (שם): And the heart of the hasty shall understand to know Not like now, that “this people’s heart is becoming fat” (ibid.).
ולשון עלגים וגו’. ולא כמו שעכשיו כי בלעגי שפה (לעיל כח): and the tongue of the stammerers, etc. Not like now, “for with distorted speech” (supra 28:11).
עלגים. כל מי שאינו יודע לכוין דיבורו להיות צח קרוי עלג ונלעג: stammerers Anyone who does not know how to direct his speech to be clear is termed עִלֵּג or נִלְעַג.
Here Rashi draws out the idea that when one’s heart becomes fat, he or she stammers. In medical terms this is called pericardial fat which is a type of visceral fat, or fat around the organs. These visceral fats cause inflammation, which can lead to other health problems. The fatty heart increases one’s risk of strokes, heart attacks and other heart conditions. This is a life-threatening condition. Isn’t it interesting how the “heart becoming fat” is also a life-threatening condition in relation to our relationship with God? This idea of stammering is that of irrationality. When we draw near to the Lord, we become rooted, we have a solid foundation. On the other hand, if we choose to turn from the Lord, we become unstable and irrational, analogous to the stammerer. Maminonides writes in his Mishneh Torah to describe these things in the following way:
Mishneh Torah, Human Dispositions 1:1
Each and every man possesses many character traits. Each trait is very different and distant from the others.1Many commentaries assume that the Rambam is stating simply that there are many personality types, which he proceeds to describe: e.g., the angry man, the calm man, etc. They quote various sources in support of this viewpoint, among them Berachot 58a: “Whoever sees a multitude of Jews recites the blessing: ‘Blessed is…the wise who knows the hidden secrets,’ because just as their natures are not similar, neither are their faces.” However, by stating that the many character traits are possessed by “each and every man,” it is possible that Rambam is implying more than that there are people with different traits. Though in Moreh Nevuchim (The Guide to the Perplexed) 2:40 the Rambam himself elaborates upon that idea, it can be said that here his intent is different. He is emphasizing the degree to which each individual’s personality is a combination of different traits, which may be unrelated and even distant from each other. Anger, generosity, and modesty, for example, can be found together in the same person, much in the same way that tenants of all sorts – unrelated to each other – can be housed in a common building. To illustrate these traits, the Rambam employs concrete examples of extreme personalities, so that the contrasts can be appreciated more easily. One type of man is wrathful; he is constantly angry. [In contrast,] there is the calm individual who is never moved to anger,2Obviously, anger or passivity are not these individuals’ only traits. Surely, they share the full spectrum of human emotions. However, in these individuals, these traits are most prominent. See Halachah 2:3 for a further discussion of anger. or, if at all, he will be slightly angry, [perhaps once] during a period of several years.3or, if at all, he will be slightly angry, [perhaps once] during a period of several years. There is the prideful man and the one who is exceptionally humble.4Chapter 2, Halachah 3, also deals at length with the contrasts between pride and humility. There is the man ruled by his appetites – he will never be satisfied from pursuing his desires,5Kohelet Rabbah 1:34 states: “No person will die having accomplished [even] half of what he desires.” This statement is difficult to comprehend since there appear to be many successful individuals who achieve their desires. Nevertheless, their accomplishments do not necessitate that their desires will be satisfied. As the Midrash continues: “A person who possesses 100 silver pieces desires 200. One who possesses 200 desires 400.” Desire itself is never satisfied. Instead, it puts the person on a constantly moving treadmill, with ever-increasing aims. As soon as one reaches one goal, he instinctively begins the pursuit of another. and [conversely,] the very pure of heart, who does not desire even the little that the body needs.6This pair of contrasting personality types deal with a person’s appetites which can be satisfied by sensual experience. For example, gluttony is stimulated and satisfied by taste. In contrast, the traits mentioned below – the desire for money or the lack of desire for it – do not involve the senses. There is the greedy man, who cannot be satisfied7Literally, “whose soul is not satisfied.” Perhaps the Rambam uses “soul,” both here and with regard to the man ruled by his sensual appetites, because it is the desire that characterizes the man, not the performance of an action as such. A man may never indulge his passion for food, or actually amass money and yet, be gluttonous or greedy. Though, in practice, his ability to gratify his ambitions may be limited by external factors, the desires of his soul are, nonetheless, unlimited. with all the money in the world, as [Ecclesiastes 5:9] states: “A lover of money never has his fill of money.”8Here, the Rambam describes an example where the desire for money becomes a goal in itself. In contrast, a man who gathers money so that he can buy things or achieve power is not interested in money per se. Although he may be faulted for different reasons, he is not greedy for money. On the other hand, for the “lover of money,” money itself becomes his raison d’etre. [In contrast,] there is the man who puts a check on himself;9literally, he “cuts himself short.” II Kings 19:26 employs a similar usage of the root ketzar: “And the inhabitants are broken, with shortened (i.e., weakened or useless) arms.” he is satisfied with even a little, which is not enough for his needs, and he does not bother to pursue and attain what he lacks.10This refers to a lazy person, who will not bestir himself even for that which is necessary. In Chapter 2, Halachah 7, this type is described clearly as: “lazy and an idler.” This is the description, too, in the Rambam’s Introduction to Avot – Shemonah Perakim, Chapter 4. There is [the miser,]11In contrast to the “lover of money” mentioned above, the miser is not as bent on acquiring new wealth as much as hoarding the money and possessions he has. who torments himself with hunger, gathering [his possessions] close to himself. – The terminology the Rambam uses emphasizes the miser’s need to be close to his money and possessions. Similar, but not exactly correspondent, expressions are found in the Bible (Proverbs 13:11 and the Talmud (Bava Kama 80a). who torments himself with hunger, gathering [his possessions] close to himself. Whenever he spends a penny of his own, he does so with great pain. [Conversely,] there is [the spendthrift,] who consciously wastes his entire fortune.12Chullin 84b gives examples of such behavior: wearing linen clothing, using glass utensils, and hiring workers without supervising them. All other traits follow the same pattern [of contrast]. For example: the overly elated and the depressed;13The Rambam is not referring to an average optimist and a pessimist. Rather, he describes personalities who do not have a grip on reality. onain is the term used for the bereaved who has not yet buried his dead. mehulal, the other extreme, is used by Jeremiah 51:7 to refer to a state of intoxication and delirious drunkenness. the stingy and the freehanded;14Our translation of shua is clearly evident from Hilchot Matnot Ani’im 7:11. It follows that chili represents the opposite extreme. (See also Ibn Ezra, Isaiah 32:5.) The difference between this pair of traits and the miser-spendthrift pair mentioned above is that the latter refers to a person’s conduct toward himself, while the former refers to his conduct with regard to others. The stingy man, unlike the miser, may spend money for his own needs, but is tightfisted when others are concerned. By the same token, a freehanded man need not necessarily indulge himself, though he is generous when giving charity. Though this may sound praiseworthy, when taken to extremes it can also prove dangerous, because a person may hurt himself in the process of giving excessively to another. (See Lechem Mishneh.) the cruel and the softhearted; the coward and the rash. and the like.15We find a longer treatment of personal characteristics in the Rambam’s Shemonah Perakim, Chapter 4.
Mamionides writes that different men have different character traits. He speaks of certain traits being more prominent in one’s life as opposed to others. Is one constantly angry or is one humble and calm? Is a man ruled by his appetites such that he will never be satisfied with what he has? He goes on referring to halachic discussions on how money always causes one to want more, and how the greedy man always wants more. The greedy man cannot be satisfied. Other men may be lazy, or an idler meaning that they want to simply sit around and do nothing. A lot of examples are given of these types of characteristics. It seems the point of this discussion is that the difference between this pair of traits and the miser-spendthrift pair mentioned here is that the latter refers to a person’s conduct toward himself, while the former refers to his conduct with regard to others. The Word of God here is important for tempering the selfish desires. Note how Mamionides writes that one who gives charity could also be so generous that he hurts himself through excessive giving. Each situation here, for good or for bad, can be taken to the extreme. Note that one can give in charity, or be a bible teacher, etc. and the ulterior motive was for pride and to be honored by men. Isaiah writes similar concepts according to the TgJ saying, ו אְרֵי רַשִיעַיָא רִשעָא מְמַלְלִין וּבלִבְהֹון מִתעַשְתִין אֹונֵיס לְמַעְבַד שְקַר וּלמַלָלָא קֳדָם יוי סָטיָא לְשַלהָאָה נְפַש צַדִיקַיָא דִמחַמְדִין לְאֻלפָנָא הָא כְכָפְנָא לְלַחמָא וּפִתגָמֵי אֹורָיתָא דְאִנוּן כְצָהְיָא לְמַיָא מְדַמַן לְבַטָלָא׃ 32:6 For the wicked will talk wickedness, and in their heart they meditate violence, to practise falsehood, and to speak revolt against the Lord, to weary the soul of the righteous, who long after instruction, as the hungry after bread; and after the words of the law, which are like water to him that is athirst, they purpose to make to cease. ז וְרַשִיעַיָא דְעוּבָדֵיהֹון בִישִין וְאִינוּן עַל עֵיצַת חְטִין מִתמַלכִין לְחַבָלָא עִנוְתָנַיָא בְמִלֵי שְקַר וּפִתגָמֵי חַשִיכַיָא בְדִינָא׃32:7 And the wicked, whose works are evil, take counsel with sinners to destroy the poor with lying words, and the words of the needy in judgment. (TgJ) Here the translation writes that the righteous long for instruction, they long for the words of the Torah, which are like water to the thirsty. The point of the Mishneh Torah on these things is that we all have these characteristics to one extent or the other, and the importance of God’s Word in our lives is for instruction, to temper our attitudes and to draw us back to the Lord, to consider His ways and adjust our lives, our attitudes, our character, to be in line with what the Lord God wants for our lives. Rashi interprets these things in the following way.
Rashi on Isaiah 32:6 Parts 1-4
נבלה ידבר. מדבר ל’ הוה הוא: speaks villainy (יְדַבֵּר) like מְדַבֵּר, a present tense.
יעשה און. יקבץ מחשבות און כמו (דברים ח׳:י״ז) עשה לי החיל הזה: works iniquity (יַעֲשֶׂה) Gathers thoughts of iniquity. Comp. (Deut. 8:17) “Gathered (עָשָׂה) for me this wealth.”
לעשות חונף. חושב מחשבות איך יוכל לעשות חנופה, חונף שם דבר לכך טעמו למעלה ונקוד פתח: to practice flattery (לֲַעֲשׂוֹת) He thinks thoughts how he can practice flattery. חֹנֵף is a noun; therefore, the accent is on the first syllable, it is vowelized with a ‘pattah’ (now called a ‘segol’).
ומשקה צמא יחסיר. לפי פשוטו שגוזלין העניים ותרגומו פתגמי אורייתא דאינון כמיא לצחייא מדמן לבטלא: and the drink of the thirsty he causes to fail According to the simple meaning, they rob the poor. The Targum, (however, paraphrases:) The words of the Torah, which are like water to the thirsty, they plan to nullify.
Here Rashi says נבלה ידבר “the fool speaks” vainly and works iniquity and gathers to himself thoughts of iniquity. Remember how our thoughts lead to our actions. This again is the significance of God’s Word, to get the Word of God into our minds is for the purpose of transforming our thoughts, and ultimately our actions which again are the outcome of our thoughts. The fool also practices flattery, which is connected to pride, and he robs those who are thirsty, meaning that he deprives others of their desire for God’s Word. The Scriptures are analogized to water for the thirsty and how the man of God will feed and water those who are in need. The most important point is how we need the Lord God to create a miracle of reformation and call us to repentance to turn from our evil ways. We all have the capacity to be wicked, to live in our lusts, the desires of the flesh, and we need the Lord to help us to turn from these things! The Torah states, Deuteronomy 20:4 “For the LORD your God is he that goeth with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you.” Consistent with the Torah, the Lord God sent His Son the Messiah ahead of us to fight our battles for us. In addition, he gave us authority as the children of God to command the evil spiritual forces of this world to leave and to break free from bondage to sin! Paul wrote saying, Romans 8:1-39 “There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.” He went on saying, Romans 8:31 “What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?” Romans 8:37 “Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us.” 2 Corinthians 2:14 “Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in every place.” 1 Corinthians 15:57 “But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” Philippians 4:13 “I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.” Obviously, Paul understands something about the Messiah of God, that He sets us free from the vices of this world, that there is power in having faith in the Messiah of God and in our Father in heaven. These things come with trusting and believing! These things are consistent with what Isaiah has been speaking of, that we trust in the Lord God our Father in heaven, believing that He is able to do all things, and to turn from the ways of the world and the idols that one sets up for one’s self. Victory over this world is promised to those who trust in Him and keep their faith being faithful to God and to Yeshua the Messiah of God to live our lives according to His Word!