Looking at the remainder of Isaiah 27:7-13 many commentators state that this is a combination of different texts, and their argument is based upon the change in tense, person, and gender that make these verses difficult for interpretation. Another comment is on the name of the city mentioned in Isaiah 27:10. The focus of the remainder of the chapter deals with the defeat of Israel’s enemies. The references to Asherah poles and altars (see Isaiah 17:8) may be to northern tribes of Israel. John Oswalt states that this city may be the same as mentioned in Isaiah 24:10-12, 25:2-3, and 26:5, Jerusalem. This makes the verses in 27:7-13 have continuity within the book of Isaiah thus far. We note God’s victory over Israel’s enemies is based upon Israel’s faithfulness. According to the Torah, in Sefer Devarim (Book of Deuteronomy) HaShem lays out two paths for His people. One path is that of listening, hearing the voice of God, and obedience to God’s word. The second path is that of disobedience, not listening, and not obeying God’s word. In these Torah passages, it is as if the Lord God Almighty through Moshe was pleading with the people to hear the message of His desire to bless them. Ultimately it is the individual choice and the right to choose that God gives each of us, whether we seek to follow the path of righteousness, as opposed to the path of disobedience and sin which leads to the curse and death. (See Devarim / Deuteronomy 30:15-20).
ספר דברים פרק ל
טו רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת-הַחַיִּים וְאֶת-הַטּוֹב וְאֶת-הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת-הָרָע: טז אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת-יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֹתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחָיִיתָ וְרָבִיתָ וּבֵרַכְךָ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר-אַתָּה בָא-שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ: יז וְאִם-יִפְנֶה לְבָבְךָ וְלֹא תִשְׁמָע וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבַדְתָּם: יח הִגַּדְתִּי לָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן לֹא-תַאֲרִיכֻן יָמִים עַל-הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹבֵר אֶת-הַיַּרְדֵּן לָבוֹא שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ: יט הַעִדֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת-הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת-הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ: כ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת-יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקֹלוֹ וּלְדָבְקָה-בוֹ כִּי הוּא חַיֶּיךָ וְאֹרֶךְ יָמֶיךָ לָשֶׁבֶת עַל-הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָֹה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֵת לָהֶם:
Devarim / Deuteronomy 30:15–20
30:15 See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil; 30:16 In that I command thee this day to love the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments and his statutes and his judgments, that thou mayest live and multiply: and the LORD thy God shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest to possess it. 30:17 But if thine heart turn away, so that thou wilt not hear, but shalt be drawn away, and worship other gods, and serve them; 30:18 I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish, and that ye shall not prolong your days upon the land, whither thou passest over Jordan to go to possess it. 30:19 I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live: 30:20 That thou mayest love the LORD thy God, and that thou mayest obey his voice, and that thou mayest cleave unto him: for he is thy life, and the length of thy days: that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them. (KJV)
We note here how Moshe speaking on behalf of the Lord God Almighty states clearly that there are two paths that are being laid out before men. It is interesting how important these statements are, especially in relation to the NT text, the Messiah of God, and walking in His footsteps, walking in the ways of Yeshua who showed us what it means to walk in God’s commands. One would think that most men would choose to follow in the path of righteousness and truth, but this is not the case generally speaking. Most men choose the path of sin and rebellion. We are on an endless journey here in this world, one of falling down and getting back up again. This is the struggle between truth, justice, and faith, and the world which stands against all of the ways of God. The Torah describes the blessings of God on His people, upon those who would believe both Jew and Gentile. The Torah is coupled to the standard for our lives, and facilitates this concept of falling short and then getting back up again to start over. This repeated failure develops humility as we rely upon God for the miracle of deliverance and for salvation. When we draw near to the Lord in His Word and in prayer, taking with us the confession of our weaknesses, we are acknowledging our need for the Lord, for His strength, and for the gift of borrowed righteousness from God’s Tzadik! From Yeshua the Messiah! Paul wrote according to Colossians 2:13-15 the work of the Messiah and the blessing that we receive from His righteous works.
2:13 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses; 2:14 Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; 2:15 And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it. (KJV, ܘܰܠܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܕ݁ܡܺܝܬ݂ܻܝܢ ܗ̄ܘܰܝܬܾ݁ܘܢ ܒܱ݁ܚܛܴܗܰܝ̈ܟܾ݁ܘܢ ܁ ܘܰܒ݂ܥܽܘܪܠܾܘܬ݂ ܒܷ݁ܣܪܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܆ ܐܱܚܺܝܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܥܰܡܶܗ ܂ ܘܰܫܒ݂ܰܩ ܠܱܢ ܟܾ݁ܠܗܽܘܢ ܚܛܴܗܰܝ̈ܢ ܂ܘܰܥܛܴܐ ܒ݁ܦ݂ܽܘܩܕܴ݁ܢܱ̈ܘܗ̄ܝ ܫܛܴܪ ܚܰܘܒܱ݁ܝ̈ܢ ܇ ܗܰܘ ܕܻ݁ܐܝܬ݂ܱܘܗ̄ܝ ܗ̄ܘܳܐ ܣܰܩܽܘܒ݂ܠܱܢ ܂ ܘܫܰܩܠܷܗ ܡܶܢ ܡܨܱܥܬ݂ܴܐ ܘܩܰܒ݂ܥܶܗ ܒܱ݁ܙܩܺܝܦ݂ܶܗ ܂ ܘܒ݂ܰܫܠܴܚ ܦܱ݁ܓ݂ܪܷܗ ܦܱ݁ܪܣܺܝ ܠܱܐܪ̈ܟ݂ܰܘܣ ܘܰܠܫܰܠܻܝ̈ܛܴܢܶܐ ܂ ܘܰܐܒ݂ܗܶܬ݂ ܐܷܢܽܘܢ ܓܱ݁ܠܝܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܒܱ݁ܩܢܽܘܡܶܗ ܀ 13 καὶ ὑμᾶς νεκροὺς ὄντας °[ἐν] τοῖς παραπτώμασιν καὶ ⸆ τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν, συνεζωοποίησεν ⸀ὑμᾶς σὺν αὐτῷ, χαρισάμενος ⸁ἡμῖν πάντα τὰ παραπτώματα.* 14 ἐξαλείψας τὸ καθʼ ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον ⸋τοῖς δόγμασιν⸌ ὃ ἦν ὑπεναντίον ἡμῖν,* καὶ αὐτὸ ἦρκεν ἐκ τοῦ μέσου προσηλώσας αὐτὸ τῷ σταυρῷ·* 15 ἀπεκδυσάμενος τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας ⸆ ἐδειγμάτισεν ἐν παρρησίᾳ,* θριαμβεύσας αὐτοὺς ἐν αὐτῷ.*)
We note that Paul writes that we do not struggle simply against our flesh which desires sin, but also against the spiritual forces that are at work in this world as well! Paul describes the power of God to forgive us of our sins, and literally states that ἐξαλείψας τὸ καθʼ ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον ⸋τοῖς δόγμασιν “wiping away our record of indebtedness.” Notice how the Greek text is not saying the Torah has passed away, but that our guilt of disobedience is what is being wiped away. This is the victory that we are given by faith in the Messiah! We note again here Paul writes that the battle we face is not just a natural one. The battle we face is a spiritual one that takes place in both this world and in our minds. The victory is found in repentance, admitting our guilt before God, acknowledging our need for the Lord God Almighty, and believing in what Yeshua the Messiah had done on our behalf. Then seeking to live a life that chooses the path of righteousness as opposed to the path of disobedience. We are currently in the month of Elul and the high holidays are nearing. We note the prayer of faithfulness that is recommended to be recited daily for this month developed by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.
תְּפִילָּה לְחוֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל
אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי. אָבִי שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם מָלֵא רַחֲמִים עָזְרֵנִי וְזִכַּנִי לְהִתְקָרֵב אֵלֶיךָ תָּמִיד וּבִפְרָט כָּעֵת בְּחוֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל. וְאַתָּה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ תִּפְתַּח יָדְךָ וְתִהְיֶה יְמִינְךָ פְּשׁוּטָה לְקַבֵּל שָׁבִים.עַד אֲשֶׁר נִזְכֶּה לְהַמְשִׁיךְ וּלְתַקֵּן כָּל הַתִּיקּוּנִים הַנִּמְשָׁכִים עַל יְדֵי הַיִּחוּדִים וְהַכַּוָּונוֹת שֶׁל אֱלוּל. וּתְסַיְּיעֵנִי מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם לְטַהֲרָנֵי מֵעֲווֹנוֹתַי שֶׁאֶזְכֶּה לָשׁוּב בִּתְשׁוּבָה שְׁלֹמֹה בֶּאֱמֶת עַל כָּל עֲווֹנוֹתַי. וְעָזְרֵנִי שֶׁאֶזְכֶּה בְּכָל מָקוֹם תָּמִיד לִמְצוֹא אוֹתְךָ. בֵּין בְּעָלֶיהָ בֶּן בִּירִידָה אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי אָמֵן וְאָמֵן.
A prayer for the month of Elul
Ani L’Dodi V’Dodi Li (אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי) – I am my beloved’s and my beloved is mine – Father in heaven, full of mercy, help me and give me the merit to become closer to You always and especially during the month of Elul. And You with your great mercy will open Your hand of kindness to accept the ones who repent and do Teshuvah and seek closeness to You. So we can continue to rectify all the Tikkunim that are possible by the great powers of Yichudim (Unity) and Kavanot (meditations) of the month of Elul. Father, please help me to be cleansed from the heavens from all of my sins and may I merit to do complete Teshuvah for all of my sins. Father, bless me that I should always find You wherever I seek You, when I am in a high spiritual place or unfortunately also when I spiritually fall to a low place. Ani L’Dodi V’Dodi Li (אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי) – I am my beloved’s and my beloved is mine – Amen!
It is interesting how the prayer asks for the Lord to give us the merit to come closer to the Lord. Note how this follows from what Isaiah is trying to tell His people, to trust in the Lord and to seek for His help, His empowering in our lives to have this desire to draw near. The prayer also notes the significance of Teshuvah (Repentance). We note also the significance of the request to be “cleansed from the heavens for all my sins” and the book of Hebrews which details how Yeshua the Messiah entered into the heavenly court and the heavenly Tabernacle and made atonement in Heaven on our behalf! This prayer also denotes this concept of cycles, of the two-path choice, the endless journey of falling down and getting back up again. The prayer concludes with the request to always find the Lord when seeking Him. We note that victory over the spiritual forces in this world has already been won! In addition to the surety of the atonement that is provided by faith in Yeshua the Messiah and His finished work! The enemy defined by those of the nations, or those who are disobedient, is a continuing work in process which is dependent upon obedience, seeking the Lord, humility, and Teshuvah, just as Isaiah is calling the people back to the ways of God for the purpose of enabling the Lord God to overcome her enemies. Based upon the interpretation of these things, we note how God’s victory over our enemies, involves not just the nations of this world, but also over the wickedness and evils of this world, and the underlying spiritual forces that are at work. The Lord God chastises His people for the purpose of purification, meaning that one seeks the Lord and sanctifies himself, meaning that he or she separates themselves from sin, from this world, which is why the word for sanctification is defined by the word Holiness (Kedoshim). The end result of what Yeshua has done, is that this world no longer is able to hold us captive, in fact, even death itself has no hold on us for those who trust in Yeshua who holds the keys to death and hell! (Revelation 1:18) This is the victory that Paul and the disciples speak of so often according to the Apostolic Writings (NT).
Isaiah continues saying the following according to Isaiah 27:7-8.
ספר ישעיה פרק כז
ז הַכְּמַכַּת מַכֵּהוּ הִכָּהוּ אִם-כְּהֶרֶג הֲרֻגָיו הֹרָג: ח בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ תְּרִיבֶנָּה הָגָה בְּרוּחוֹ הַקָּשָׁה בְּיוֹם קָדִים:
Isaiah 27:7 “Hath he smitten him, as he smote those that smote him? Or is he slain according to the slaughter of them that are slain by him? (הַכְּמַכַּת מַכֵּהוּ הִכָּהוּ אִם-כְּהֶרֶג הֲרֻגָיו הֹרָג)” Isaiah 27:8 “In measure, when it shooteth forth, thou wilt debate with it: He stayeth his rough wind in the day of the east wind. (בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ תְּרִיבֶנָּה הָגָה בְּרוּחוֹ הַקָּשָׁה בְּיוֹם קָדִים)” Here in Isaiah 27:7 this verse really catches our eye since the entire verse is derived from two Hebrew words נכה meaning to strike and הרג meaning to slaughter or kill. Here we see the Binyan on these two Hebrew words being utilized to generate an entire sentence, something that is only possible in ancient Semitic languages. Verse 6 speaks to the prosperity and fruitfulness of Israel, and we jump immediately into verse 7 which asks these questions, of whether one has been struck and slain by the Lord in the manner in which was done so for the nations? We note something, if we look at the remains of Babylon and Nineveh, they do not exist any longer, these cities were razed completely to the ground. (Note though that Sadam Husan rebuilt the city of Babylon and pictures may be found by googling this topic.) The point is when comparing Jerusalem to these cities, Jerusalem has not been treated the same. The verse speaks to the idea that the people are not exempt from punishment if living in unrepentant sin. It is also important to note that the same standard goes for those who are believers in Yeshua the Messiah! The interesting point here in Isaiah 27:7 is that the judgment of God upon His people is less severe than on the unrighteous, their punishment is more severe. (See Isaiah 10:5-19, 33:1, and 47:5-9) In Isaiah 27:8, the interpretation on this verse בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ תְּרִיבֶנָּה הָגָה בְּרוּחוֹ הַקָּשָׁה בְּיוֹם קָדִים “in a startling experience, in sending a legal suit he will expel with a harsh east wind in the day” it is quite difficult to follow the KJV interpretation of this verse. Even John Oswalt has trouble finding the correct rendition on this text, in regard to the Lord meting out judgment and the exile, which may be what is being spoken of here. A text comparison notes the following:
The TgJ translates this verse to say, “8 With the measure wherewith thou didst measure, they shall measure unto thee, thou didst send forth and oppress them. He meditated a word against them. He prevailed against them in the day of wrath.” The rabbis interpret this along the lines of how the KJV has translated this verse. The TgJ writes בְסָתָא דַהְוֵיתָא כָאֵיל “the measurements be fixed,” speaks to the Lord having a set prescribed method of punishment depending upon whether one is being called to return to righteousness as opposed to those who do not know God. We note that the LXX translates more along the lines of our translation saying, μαχόμενος καὶ ὀνειδίζων ἐξαποστελεῖ αὐτούς, οὐ σὺ ἦσθα ὁ μελετῶν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ σκληρῷ ἀνελεῖν αὐτοὺς πνεύματι θυμοῦ; “8 Fighting and reproaching, he will send them away. Were you not trying by the harsh wind to slay them with a wind of wrath?” We note the word μαχόμενος means “to fight, quarrel, dispute” and maps back to the Hebrew word תְּרִיבֶנָּה which means the same thing. In the LXX μάχομαι occurs over 20×, sometimes for physical fighting (i.e. Shemot / Exodus 21:22) or military (i.e. Jeremiah 33:5 [LXX 40:5]). Most often, however, μάχομαι renders ריב “to quarrel,” and the context indicates strife in a more general sense (see Bereshit / Genesis 26:20). In the NT, the verb μάχομαι occurs only 4×, never in a military sense. There is mention of the Israelites whom Moses saw fighting with each other (Acts 7:26), but otherwise the sense is “to quarrel.” Some of those to whom Yeshua was speaking disputed among themselves about what he had said (John 6:52). It is important for those who serve the Lord not to quarrel (2 Timothy 2:24). The believers to whom James wrote were involved in quarrels because they were covetous (James 4:2). The idea of בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ “in startling experience sent her” is translated as the measure of God’s wrath by the rabbis and the LXX translates as “he will send them away.” If we are to assume the translation from the rabbinic text is correct, then we can say that what God is doing is carefully planned or measured out. This means that the punishment is precisely fitted for the crime. Or that what the Lord is doing is exactly what is needed to draw one to return to the ways of God. The feminine sense from the words בְּסַאסְּאָה בְּשַׁלְחָהּ may be a reference to the city, since the people were quarrelsome towards the Lord and so He is moving to draw the people back through oppression by another nation. The analogy of the east wind suggests that they would be swept away quickly and would have no forewarning of what was going to happen outside of this prophetic message.
Isaiah continues saying the following according to Isaiah 27:9.
ספר ישעיה פרק כז
ט לָכֵן בְּזֹאת יְכֻפַּר עֲוֹן-יַעֲקֹב וְזֶה כָּל-פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ בְּשֹוּמוֹ | כָּל-אַבְנֵי מִזְבֵּחַ כְּאַבְנֵי-גִר מְנֻפָּצוֹת לֹא-יָקֻמוּ אֲשֵׁרִים וְחַמָּנִים:
Isaiah 27:9 states, “By this therefore shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged; And this is all the fruit to take away his sin; (לָכֵן בְּזֹאת יְכֻפַּר עֲוֹן-יַעֲקֹב וְזֶה כָּל-פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ בְּשֹוּמוֹ) When he maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are beaten in sunder, The groves and images shall not stand up. (כָּל-אַבְנֵי מִזְבֵּחַ כְּאַבְנֵי-גִר מְנֻפָּצוֹת לֹא-יָקֻמוּ אֲשֵׁרִים וְחַמָּנִים)” Here we are told that Jacob, a reference to all of Israel, being purged (יְכֻפַּר) where the MSS writes “atoned for” his sins, Isaiah 27:9 provides information about Israel’s sins, altars and groves which suggest idolatry. Isaiah says וְזֶה כָּל-פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ “and this is all the fruit to turn away his sin.” We note the word הָסִר is from the root word סור meaning “change direction; turn aside; go off, retreat.” This is reminiscent of the words of Paul in the NT perspective according to Galatians 5:22-25.
5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 5:23 Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law. 5:24 And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts. 5:25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. (KJV, ܦܻ݁ܐܪܷ̈ܐ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܕ݁ܪܾܘܚܳܐ ܐܻܝܬ݂ܱܝܗܽܘܢ ܆ ܚܽܘܒܴ݁ܐ ܂ ܚܰܕ݂ܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܫܠܴܡܳܐ ܂ ܡܰܓ݁ܪܱܬ݂ ܂ ܪܾܘܚܳܐ ܂ ܒܱ݁ܣܺܝܡܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܛܴܒ݂ܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܗܰܝܡܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ܡܰܟܻ݁ܝܟ݂ܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܡܣܰܝܒ݁ܪܴܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܷܝܢ ܢܳܡܽܘܣܳܐ ܠܴܐ ܣܺܝܡ ܂ ܐܱܝܠܷܝܢ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܰܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ ܐܷܢܽܘܢ ܆ ܒܷ݁ܣܪܗܽܘܢ ܙܩܰܦ݂ܘ ܂ ܥܰܡ ܟܾ݁ܠܗܽܘܢ ܟܻ݁ܐܒ݂ܰܘܗ̄ܝ̈ ܘܰܪ̈ܓ݂ܺܝܓ݂ܳܬ݂ܷܗ ܂ ܢܺܚܶܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܒ݁ܪܾܘܚܳܐ ܆ ܘܰܠܪܾܘܚܳܐ ܢܶܫܠܱܡ ܂ 22 ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη χαρὰ εἰρήνη,* μακροθυμία χρηστότης ἀγαθωσύνη,* πίστις 23 πραΰτης ἐγκράτεια⸆· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.* 24 οἱ δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ °[Ἰησοῦ] τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς παθήμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις.* 25 Εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι,* ⸂πνεύματι καὶ⸃ στοιχῶμεν.)
The reason this is reminiscent of what Paul is saying is due to the role of the Spirit in those who have been atoned for in Yeshua the Messiah. The role of the Spirit in our lives is to convict us of sin which leads to our turning from our sinful ways. The Spirit also empowers us to live for the Lord according to His Word. These things are how Paul concludes, Εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι,* ⸂πνεύματι καὶ⸃ στοιχῶμεν “If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.” When we have faith and our lives demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit, then what we read in Isaiah 27:9 that we will be atoned for and the stones, altars, groves, and images we will turn from, meaning the old ways are forsaken, and we walk in God’s ways! The text comparison states the following:
The TgJ translates this verse to say, 9 “By this, therefore, shall the sins of the house of Jacob be forgiven; and thus it shall be with all the works of the perverseness of their sins, namely, that they shall make all the stones of the (idolatrous) altar like chalk stones that are beaten asunder; the groves and the sun-images shall not be raised up again.” The rabbis speak of the utter destruction of the false ways of worship and practice. The LXX translates the MSS saying, διὰ τοῦτο ἀφαιρεθήσεται ἡ ἀνομία Ιακωβ, καὶ τοῦτό ἐστιν ἡ εὐλογία αὐτοῦ, ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι αὐτοῦ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν, ὅταν θῶσιν πάντας τοὺς λίθους τῶν βωμῶν κατακεκομμένους ὡς κονίαν λεπτήν, καὶ οὐ μὴ μείνῃ τὰ δένδρα αὐτῶν, καὶ τὰ εἴδωλα αὐτῶν ἐκκεκομμένα ὥσπερ δρυμὸς μακράν. 9 “Because of this, the lawlessness of Jacob will be taken away. And this is his praise: When I take away his sin, when they make all the stones of the altars broken up like fine dust, and surely their trees will not remain, and their idols will be cut out just like a forest far away.” The LXX writes that those who are ἀνομία lawless will be removed. The idea of being removed is for those who reject God’s Torah, which again is synonymous to turning from the Lord, forsaking the Lord God in heaven. The idea of beating the altars and stones to dust, demonstrates these things will be remembered no more. We note again how the Lord God our Father in heaven is the prime mover here in both the atonement and the restoration of Israel. This follows through with Isaiah teaching that we are to trust in the Lord, and the NT conclusions that individuals may be able to atone for things that are earthly, but in order to have heavenly atonement, we need God’s Messiah Yeshua. We must repent and turn from our evil ways and may be the concept behind the phrase וְזֶה כָּל-פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ “and this is all the fruit to turn away his sin” from the sense that atoning for iniquity and turning from sin are parallel ideas. How this works, the fruit mentioned here that is coupled turning from sin, the fruit is the outcome of what God is doing in sin’s removal. We note how the smashing of the idols is a necessary step in order to receive forgiveness. This demonstrates intention, and Isaiah saying that Jacob will be atoned for is their motivation to destroy the altars and idolatrous ways (see Isaiah 44:1-5, 57:17-19, 59:15-20, Colossians 3:1-17). We note that all of these concepts are consistent and find continuity throughout all of the Scriptures! (Both Tanakh and NT texts)
Isaiah continues saying the following according to Isaiah 27:10-11.
ספר ישעיה פרק כז
י כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ: יא בִּיבֹשׁ קְצִירָהּ תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה נָשִׁים בָּאוֹת מְאִירוֹת אוֹתָהּ כִּי לֹא עַם-בִּינוֹת הוּא עַל-כֵּן לֹא-יְרַחֲמֶנּוּ עֹשֵֹהוּ וְיֹצְרוֹ לֹא יְחֻנֶּנּוּ:
Isaiah 27:10 states, “Yet the defenced city shall be desolate, And the habitation forsaken, and left like a wilderness: There shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down, And consume the branches thereof. (כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ)” Isaiah 27:11 “When the boughs thereof are withered, they shall be broken off: The women come, and set them on fire: (בִּיבֹשׁ קְצִירָהּ תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה נָשִׁים בָּאוֹת מְאִירוֹת אוֹתָהּ) For it is a people of no understanding: Therefore he that made them will not have mercy on them, And he that formed them will shew them no favour. (כִּי לֹא עַם-בִּינוֹת הוּא עַל-כֵּן לֹא-יְרַחֲמֶנּוּ עֹשֵֹהוּ וְיֹצְרוֹ לֹא יְחֻנֶּנּוּ)” We note from Isaiah the greatness of the idolaterous ways of the nations (see Isaiah 45:20, 46:1-2, and 47:5-9). Here Isaiah is essentially repeating what the outcome of the people’s unrepentant sins will cause, utter and complete destruction. (Isaiah 13:19-22, 34:8-17) And due to this destruction, the mighty city will become a place for sheep and cattle to graze in (Isaiah 27:10). We note that idolatry in and of itself is man making God in his own image. The attempts at man trying to make his own way and to justify this through invented religious practices and idolatry. (See Isaiah 44:18-19, 45:20, 47:10-11, Tehillim / Psalms 53:2-5 [Eng. 1-4], 82:5, and Romans 1:19-23) Those who make idols, make them in their image, and so it is reasonable to conclude that they identify with their idols to the extent of self-delusion preventing one from turning from his sin. A text comparison shows the following according to the LXX, MSS, TgJ, and L-Peshitta.
It is interesting the LXX translates saying, 10 τὸ κατοικούμενον ποίμνιον ἀνειμένον ἔσται ὡς ποίμνιον καταλελειμμένον, καὶ ἔσται πολὺν χρόνον εἰς βόσκημα, καὶ ἐκεῖ ἀναπαύσονται. 11 καὶ μετὰ χρόνον οὐκ ἔσται ἐν αὐτῇ πᾶν χλωρὸν διὰ τὸ ξηρανθῆναι. γυναῖκες ἐρχόμεναι ἀπὸ θέας, δεῦτε, οὐ γὰρ λαός ἐστιν ἔχων σύνεσιν, διὰ τοῦτο οὐ μὴ οἰκτιρήσῃ ὁ ποιήσας αὐτούς, οὐδὲ ὁ πλάσας αὐτοὺς οὐ μὴ ἐλεήσῃ.† 10 The inhabited flock will be neglected, like an abandoned flock, and for a long time it will be a pasture, and there they will rest. 11 And after some time there will be nothing green in it, because it will be dried up. Women who come from a spectacle, come! For there is no people that has intelligence. Because of this, the one who made them will surely not have pity, and the one who formed them will surely not show mercy. (LES) What Isaiah says according to Isaiah 27:11 reminds us of something God said to Moshe in the Torah, and what Paul used as an argument on how God works in the lives of men.
ספר שמות פרק לג
יט וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל-טוּבִי עַל-פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָֹה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם:
Shemot / Exodus 33:19
19 And he said, I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will shew mercy on whom I will shew mercy. (KJV)
9:14 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. 9:15 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. 9:16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy. 9:17 For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. (KJV, ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܢܺܐܡܰܪ ܂ ܕܱ݁ܠܡܳܐ ܥܰܘܠܴܐ ܐܻܝܬ݂ ܠܘܳܬ݂ ܐܱܠܴܗܳܐ ܆ ܚܳܣ ܂ܗܳܐ ܐܴܦ݂ ܠܡܽܘܫܶܐ ܐܷܡܰܪ ܂ ܐܷܪܱܚܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܐܱܝܢܳܐ ܕܱ݁ܡܪܱܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܳܐ ܂ ܘܶܐܚܽܘܢ ܠܱܐܝܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܳܐܷܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܐ ܂ ܠܴܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܒܻ݁ܐܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܝ ܡܰܢ ܕ݁ܨܴܒ݂ܶܐ ܇ ܘܠܴܐ ܒܻ݁ܐܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܝ ܡܰܢ ܕ݁ܪܴܗܶܛ ܆ ܐܷܠܴܐ ܒܻ݁ܐܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܝ ܐܱܠܴܗܳܐ ܡܪܱܚܡܳܢܳܐ ܂ ܐܷܡܰܪ ܓܷ݁ܝܪ ܒܱ݁ܟ݂ܬ݂ܴܒ݂ܳܐ ܠܦ݂ܶܪܥܽܘܢ ܆ ܕ݁ܠܴܗ ܠܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܐܱܩܺܝܡܬܴ݁ܟ݂ ܂ ܕܷ݁ܐܚܰܘܶܐ ܒܴ݁ܟ݂ ܚܰܝܠܝ ܂ ܘܰܕ݂ܢܶܬ݂ܟ݁ܪܷܙ ܫܶܡܝ ܒܱ݁ܐܪܥܳܐ ܟܾ݁ܠܷܗ ܂ 14 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; μὴ ἀδικία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ; μὴ γένοιτο*. 15 τῷ Μωϋσεῖ γὰρ λέγει·* ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ καὶ οἰκτιρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτίρω. 16 ἄρα οὖν οὐ τοῦ θέλοντος οὐδὲ τοῦ τρέχοντος ἀλλὰ τοῦ ⸀ἐλεῶντος θεοῦ*. 17 λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ τῷ Φαραὼ ὅτι εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐξήγειρά σε ὅπως ἐνδείξωμαι ἐν σοὶ τὴν δύναμίν μου καὶ ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ.)
We note something about these verses that are consistent with the theme of trusting in the Lord. The mercy of God is one way in which God reveals His glory to us. When the Lord said וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם he was telling Moshe that he will show kindness, compassion, and forgiveness to those whom He chooses. We note that not receiving instant punishment for sin is God’s graciousness towards us. We note in this section of the Scriptures, when the Lord God delivered Israel from slavery and brought her to the mountain of Sinai, He did so via his mercy and grace. The people in response rebelled through idol worship. Moshe is up on the mountain pleading with God not to destroy the people. In fact, the Lord God was willing to send the people into the promised land, only He would not go with them. Moshe was arguing for the Lord’s presence to not leave His people, and that He would go with these people into the land. The reason is God’s presence is necessary in order to overcome sin in our lives. When Paul used this verse, he was discussing the idea of the freedom that God has to show compassion to those whom He chooses. The idea here is God’s mercy is not flippantly given to everyone, but that His mercy is for those who believe. In addition to this, this concept of וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy” means that this choice to show mercy is not limited by anything but God’s own divine choice. This means that we must trust in Him! We note that throughout the Scriptures, the Lord’s favor is not earned by status, social class, or works of righteousness, but is reserved for those who have faith, those who trust in the Lord. We note that if mercy was dependent upon what we do, it would not be mercy. This may seem contradictory, but the idea is that those who have faith understand that we cannot earn the mercy of God. Men, women, and children are spared purely by divine choice. And we note how the people in the Exodus story were saved through the merits of Moshe which demonstrate how we need the merits of God’s Tzadik (Righteous One). Paul speaks in various places concerning these things regarding our own efforts (Ephesians 2:8-9). The Scriptures in both the Tanakh and the NT text state that we are sinful and cannot merit salvation on our own. (See Isaiah 64:6, Romans 3:10, 3:23, Tehillim / Psalm 143:2). Our salvation hinges purely on the mercy of God and on the merits of our mediator who lives, Yeshua the Messiah! (See Hebrews 9:15 and Galatians 2:16). We note that God is pleased with Yeshua (Matthew 3:17 and 17:5), and so He is pleased with anyone who trusts in Him for salvation. Yeshua is our Mediator, accomplishing for us what Moses did for Israel. We note that faithfulness is the outcome of believing and is necessary to demonstrate that we are the children of God. This is how Isaiah is describing this situation according to Isaiah 27:11, יא בִּיבֹשׁ קְצִירָהּ תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה נָשִׁים בָּאוֹת מְאִירוֹת אוֹתָהּ כִּי לֹא עַם-בִּינוֹת הוּא עַל-כֵּן לֹא-יְרַחֲמֶנּוּ עֹשֵֹהוּ וְיֹצְרוֹ לֹא יְחֻנֶּנּוּ: “When the boughs thereof are withered, they shall be broken off: The women come, and set them on fire: For it is a people of no understanding: Therefore he that made them will not have mercy on them, And he that formed them will shew them no favour.” This verse follows through from the idea וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת-אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם that God will show mercy upon whom He will show mercy. The idea here is to not be a people who behave as if we do not know God, and not to be a people of no understanding. The way we do this is through studying God’s holy Word and applying God’s word to our lives!
The final two verses of chapter 27, Isaiah 27:12-13 seem to be a demonstration of restoration and salvation. The emphasis is upon the sovereignty of God over the nations and that He is willing to restore peoples and nations. We again note this theme of trusting in the Lord, where if we trust in the nations for help, the nations and their ways will destroy us. The Torah based theme of deliverance demonstrates how the Lord God seeks to deliver us from the nations, to take us out of the nations, and to turn us from the ways of the nations (away from the ways of wickedness and unrighteousness) and turn us towards His holy and righteous ways! We note that according to Isaiah in Isaiah 13-23, that the nations surrounding Israel are under God’s judgment. In Isaiah 24-27 we find Isaiah making more generalization saying that all of the world is under God’s judgment as well, no one will be left out from this sense! We note that the covenant of God is reaffirmed in these closing verses according to Isaiah 27:12-13.
ספר ישעיה פרק כז
יב וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַחְבֹּט יְהֹוָה מִשִּׁבֹּלֶת הַנָּהָר עַד-נַחַל מִצְרָיִם וְאַתֶּם תְּלֻקְּטוּ לְאַחַד אֶחָד בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל: יג וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהֹוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלָם:
Isaiah 27:12 states, “And it shall come to pass in that day, That the LORD shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the stream of Egypt, And ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel. (וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַחְבֹּט יְהֹוָה מִשִּׁבֹּלֶת הַנָּהָר עַד-נַחַל מִצְרָיִם וְאַתֶּם תְּלֻקְּטוּ לְאַחַד אֶחָד בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל)” Isaiah 27:13 “And it shall come to pass in that day, That the great trumpet shall be blown, ( וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל) And they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, And the outcasts in the land of Egypt, And shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at Jerusalem. (וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהֹוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלָם)” It is a little difficult to determine exactly what the opening part of Isaiah 27:12 is speaking of in relation to location, וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַחְבֹּט יְהֹוָה מִשִּׁבֹּלֶת הַנָּהָר עַד-נַחַל מִצְרָיִם “And it shall come to pass in that day, That the LORD shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the stream of Egypt.” The text comparison shows the following:
The TgJ interpretes this saying, וִיהֵי בְעִדָנָא הַהוּא יִתרְמֹון קְטִילִין קֳדָם יוי מִכֵיף נַהרָא פְרָת עַד נַחלָא דְמִצרָיִם וְאַתוּן תִתקָרְבוּן חַד לִסטַר חַד בְנֵי יִשרָאֵל׃ 12 And it shall come to pass at that time, that the slain of the Lord shall be cast from the bank of the river Euphrates into the river of Egypt; and ye shall be brought near one to the other, O ye sons of Israel. (TgJ) Here the Rabbis interpret Isaiah 27:12 as from the river Euphrates unto the river of Egypt. The LXX writes that that God will fence the people as far as the Ῥινοκορούρων Rhinokorura. Note that Ῥινοκορούρων Rhinokorura is a reference to the Brook of Egypt River, A brook or wadi that serves as natural border between the Negev of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula. (Logos FactBook) So the LXX has imagined only bringing people back from exile in Egypt. The rabbis in the TgJ imagined this restoration occurring from both Mesopotamian and Babylonian territories. The TgJ is actually consistent with Jeremiah’s historical account, since according to the book of Jeremiah, Judah and Jerusalem were exiled to Babylon, and then those who remained chose to leave the land and go to Egypt. The point of these things was that the people were fleeing the consequences of their sins. In the last part of the book of Jeremiah, God was telling the people how their sins will follow them and so will the consequences to their sins! What these things teach us is that we do not flee from our geographical location and assume that all will be ok. We need to flee from our sins! When we flee from our sins, when we turn from our sins, we will worship the Lord on the holy mountain of Jerusalem (προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ κυρίῳ ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιον ἐν Ιερουσαλημ)!
We notice how the Isaiah text suggests that there will be a harvest of souls at the end of time. In context, the text speaks specifically to God gathering His righteous ones! This statement וְאַתֶּם תְּלֻקְּטוּ לְאַחַד אֶחָד בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל of being gathered “one by one” is an important observation, since we serve a personal God, each of us is responsible for his or her own actions. Isaiah 27:13 according to the LXX is very interesting saying, καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ σαλπιοῦσιν τῇ σάλπιγγι τῇ μεγάλῃ, καὶ ἥξουσιν οἱ ἀπολόμενοι ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ οἱ ἀπολόμενοι ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ κυρίῳ ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιον ἐν Ιερουσαλημ 13 And this will happen on that day: they will trumpet with the great trumpet, and those who have been destroyed in the territory of the Assyrians and those who have been destroyed in Egypt will come and bow down before the Lord on the holy mountain, Jerusalem. (LES) The key word here is ἀπόλλυμι meaning “destroyed” and this idea of the great trumpet being sounded and those who have been destroyed in both Assyria and Egypt will come and bow down before the Lord at the mountain in Jerusalem. This is interesting since if one was destroyed, how can they go before the mountain of the Lord in Jerusalem unless they were resurrected? This reminds us of Paul’s words according to 1 Corinthians 15:50-54
1 Corinthians 15:50–54
15:50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption. 15:51 Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. 15:54 So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. (KJV, ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܐܴܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܳܐ ܐܱܚܰܝ̈ ܆ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܶܣܪܴܐ ܘܰܕ݂ܡܳܐ ܡܰܠܟܾ݁ܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܕܱ݁ܫܡܰܝܳܐ ܠܡܺܐܪܱܬ݂ ܁ ܠܴܐ ܡܶܫܟ݁ܚܺܝܢ ܂ ܘܠܴܐ ܚܒ݂ܳܠܴܐ ܝܳܪܷܬ݂ ܠܴܐ ܡܶܬ݂ܚܰܒ݁ܠܴܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ܗܳܐ ܐܴܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܳܐ ܠܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܐ̱ܪܴܙܳܐ ܂ ܠܱܘ ܟܾ݁ܠܱܢ ܢܶܕ݂ܡܰܟ݂ ܆ ܟܾ݁ܠܱܢ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܢܶܬ݂ܚܰܠܱܦ݂ ܇ ܚܰܪܻܝܦ݂ܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܂ ܐܱܝܟ݂ ܪܦ݂ܳܦ݂ ܥܰܝܢܳܐ ܂ ܒ݁ܩܰܪܢܳܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܴܝܬܴ݁ܐ ܟܱ݁ܕ݂ ܬܷ݁ܩܪܷܐ ܆ ܘܰܢܩܽܘܡܽܘܢ ܡܺܝ̈ܬ݂ܷܐ ܕ݁ܠܴܐ ܚܒ݂ܳܠܴܐ ܘܰܚܢܰܢ ܢܶܬ݂ܚܰܠܱܦ݂ ܂ ܥܬ݂ܻܝܕ݂ ܗ̄ܽܘ ܓܷ݁ܝܪ ܗܳܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܡܶܬ݂ܚܰܒܱ݁ܠ ܁ ܕ݁ܢܶܠܒܱ݁ܫ ܠܴܐ ܡܶܬ݂ܚܰܒ݁ܠܴܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܇ ܘܗܳܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܡܳܐܷܬ݂ ܁ ܕ݁ܢܶܠܒܱ݁ܫ ܠܴܐ ܡܳܝܽܘܬ݂ܾܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ ܡܳܐ ܕ݁ܠܴܒ݂ܶܫ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܗܳܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܡܶܬ݂ܚܰܒܱ݁ܠ ܠܴܐ ܡܶܬ݂ܚܰܒ݁ܠܴܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܇ ܘܗܳܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܡܳܐܷܬ݂ ܠܴܐ ܡܳܝܽܘܬ݂ܾܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܆ ܗܳܝܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܬܷ݁ܗܘܶܐ ܡܶܠܬ݂ܴܐ ܗ̄ܝ ܕܱ݁ܟ݂ܬ݂ܻܝܒ݂ܳܐ ܇ ܕܷ݁ܐܬ݂ܒ݁ܠܱܥ ܡܰܘܬܴ݁ܐ ܒ݁ܙܳܟ݂ܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ 50 Τοῦτο ⸀δέ φημι,* ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ ⸂κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται⸃ οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ.* 51 ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· ⸆ πάντες ⸇ ⸂οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα,* πάντες δὲ⸃ ἀλλαγησόμεθα, 52 ἐν ἀτόμῳ,* ἐν ⸀ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γὰρ καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ⸁ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα. 53 Δεῖ γὰρ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀφθαρσίαν καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀθανασίαν.* 54 ὅταν δὲ ⸂τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀφθαρσίαν καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀθανασίαν⸃, τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος· κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος.*)
Notice how it is quite possible that Paul was thinking about this time of redemption of God’s people, those who are God’s children, being raised when that great trumpet is sounded. The Greek word ἀπόλλυμι “destroyed” speaks to those how have died, and certainly suggests what Paul is speaking of here of the resurrection. What this provides for us is hope, that no matter what happens, whether in life or in death, we can trust the Lord, and rely upon His Mercy and Grace! The imagery laid down by Isaiah according to Isaiah 2:1-5 of the nations streaming to Jerusalem may also be included here, since restoration is to those who are faithful to God and His holy Word! Isaiah again and again mentions this restoration how God’s people will be fully restored when they worship him on the holy mountain (see Isaiah 2:2-4, 24:23, 25:6, and 25:10). We note the parallels to the final restoration at the consummation of the ages in the final days, when the Lord will gather His people according to Isaiah 65:17-25, 66:22-23, and Revelation 21:2-3). This is the great hope that we have, and Isaiah speaks to this hope in the last verse to Isaiah 27:13 to reassure us that the Lord is in fact in control, and that we can trust Him no matter what! Our focus is to remain upon the Lord and His Messiah Yeshua! And we can truly rely upon Him!
The Targum Jonathan is an Aramaic and Rabbinic interpretation of the book of Isaiah and therefore is a very valuable resource for our study of the book of Isaiah!
תרגום יונתן בן עוזיאל אל ישעיה פרק כז:א-ז
ז הַכְמַחְתָא דַהְוָה מָחֵי מְחֹוהִי וְאִם כִקטֹול קְטִילֹוהִי אִתקְטִיל׃ ח בְסָתָא דַהְוֵיתָא כָאֵיל בַה יְכִילוּן לָך דַהְוֵיתָא שָלַח וּמעִיק לְהֹון מֵיגֵי עְלֵיהֹון בְמִילָא מַתקֵיף עְלֵיהֹון בְיֹום לְוָט׃ ט בְכֵין בְדָא יִשתַבקוּן חֹובֵי בֵית יַעְקֹב וְדֵין כָל עוּבָדֵי אַסטָיוּת חֹובֹוהִי בְשַוָיוּתֵיה כָל אַבנֵי אֵיגֹורָא כְאַבנֵי גִיר מְנֻפָצָן לָא יִתקַייְמוּן אְשֵירַיָא וַחְנִסנְסַיָא׃ י אְרֵי קַרתָא דַהְוָת כְרִיכָא בִלחֹודַה תִיתֵיב תְהֵי רְטִישָא וּשבִיקָא כְמַדבְרָא בַה יְגִיחוּן צַדִיקַיָא וְיִבְזוּן יָת נִכסַהָא וּיסוּפָן מַשרְיָתַהָא מִלְמִפַק׃ יא יִתקְצַר חֵילְהֹון יִבַהתוּן בְעוּבָדֵיהֹון יִתַברוּן נְשַיָא עָלִין לְבֵית דַחלַתהֹון וּמַלְפָן יָתְהֹון אְרֵי לָא עַם סֻכלְתָן אִנוּן עַל כֵין לָא יְרַחֵים עְלֵיהֹון דַעְבַדִינוּן וְדִי בְרָנוּן לָא יְחוּס עְלֵיהֹון׃ יב וִיהֵי בְעִדָנָא הַהוּא יִתרְמֹון קְטִילִין קֳדָם יוי מִכֵיף נַהרָא פְרָת עַד נַחלָא דְמִצרָיִם וְאַתוּן תִתקָרְבוּן חַד לִסטַר חַד בְנֵי יִשרָאֵל׃ יג וִיהֵי בְעִדָנָא הַהוּא יִתְקַע בְשֹופָרָא רַבָא וְיֵיתֹון דִגלֹו לְאַרעָא דְאַתוּר וּדאִטַלטַלוּ לְאַרעָא דְמִצרָיִם וְיִסגְדוּן קֳדָם יוי בְטוּרָא דְקוּדשָא בִירוּשלַם׃
Targum Jonathan son of Uziel Isaiah 27:7-13
27:7 Hath he smitten him (Judah and Israel), as He smote those that smote him? Or is he (Judah and Israel) slain according to the slaughter of them that are slain by Him (by God). 27:8 With the measure wherewith thou didst measure, they shall measure unto thee, thou didst send forth and oppress them. He meditated a word against them. He prevailed against them in the day of wrath. 27:9 By this, therefore, shall the sins of the house of Jacob be forgiven; and thus it shall be with all the works of the perverseness of their sins, namely, that they shall make all the stones of the (idolatrous) altar like chalk stones that are beaten asunder; the groves and the sun-images shall not be raised up again. 27:10 But the city that was fortified shall sit solitary: she shall totter, and be forsaken like a desert; the just shall wage war against her, and plunder her treasures, and make an end of her hosts, so that none shall go forth. 27:11 Their armies shall be cut off; and they shall be confounded on account of their works, which shall be broken: women shall enter the house of their idolatry, and teach them, because they are a people of no understanding: therefore He that made them shall not have mercy on them, and He that created them shall show them no favour. 27:12 And it shall come to pass at that time, that the slain of the Lord shall be cast from the bank of the river Euphrates into the river of Egypt; and ye shall be brought near one to the other, O ye sons of Israel. 27:13 And it shall come to pass at that time, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come, who had gone into captivity into the land of Assyria, and those who were cast into the land of Egypt, and they shall worship before the Lord, in the holy mountain at Jerusalem. (TgJ)
The TgJ interprets Isaiah’s words to ask the question of whether the Lord God has struck Israel and Judah in the same way that their enemies have struck them? ז הַכְמַחְתָא דַהְוָה מָחֵי מְחֹוהִי וְאִם כִקטֹול קְטִילֹוהִי אִתקְטִיל׃ 27:7 Hath he smitten him (Judah and Israel), as He smote those that smote him? Or is he (Judah and Israel) slain according to the slaughter of them that are slain by Him (by God). ח בְסָתָא דַהְוֵיתָא כָאֵיל בַה יְכִילוּן לָך דַהְוֵיתָא שָלַח וּמעִיק לְהֹון מֵיגֵי עְלֵיהֹון בְמִילָא מַתקֵיף עְלֵיהֹון בְיֹום לְוָט׃ 27:8 With the measure wherewith thou didst measure, they shall measure unto thee, thou didst send forth and oppress them. He meditated a word against them. He prevailed against them in the day of wrath. (TgJ) It is interesting how Isaiah 27:8 speaks to the concept of measures and justice. The idea here is to the way that we treat others, the measure that we use will be returned to us and with the same measure we will be treated. This sounds a lot like something Yeshua had taught according to Matthew 7:2.
7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. 7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. 7:3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? 7:4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? 7:5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother’s eye. (KJV, ܠܴܐ ܬ݁ܕ݂ܽܘܢܽܘܢ ܕ݁ܠܴܐ ܬܷ݁ܬ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܢܽܘܢ ܂ܒ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܢܳܐ ܓܷ݁ܝܪ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܳܝܢܺܝܢ ܐܢ̄ܬܾ݁ܘܢ ܂ ܬܷ݁ܬ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܢܽܘܢ ܂ ܘܒ݂ܰܟ݂ܝܳܠܬܴ݁ܐ ܕܱ݁ܡܟ݂ܺܝܠܻܝܢ ܐܢ̄ܬܾ݁ܘܢ ܂ ܡܶܬ݁ܬ݁ܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܠܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܀ ܡܳܢܳܐ ܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܱܢ̄ܬ݁ ܓܷ݁ܠܴܐ ܕܱ݁ܒ݂ܥܰܝܢܶܗ ܕܱ݁ܐܚܽܘܟ݂ ܆ ܘܩܳܪܻܝܬ݂ܴܐ ܕܱ݁ܒ݂ܥܰܝܢܳܟ݂ ܠܴܐ ܒܴ݁ܚܰܪ ܐܱܢ̄ܬ݁ ܂ ܐܱܘ ܐܱܝܟܱ݁ܢܳܐ ܐܴܡܰܪ ܐܱܢ̄ܬ݁ ܠܱܐܚܽܘܟ݂ ܇ ܫܒ݂ܽܘܩ ܐܱܦܷ݁ܩ ܓܷ݁ܠܴܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܝܢܳܟ݂ ܇ ܘܗܳܐ ܩܳܪܻܝܬܴ݁ܐ ܒ݁ܥܰܝܢܳܟ݂ ܂ ܢܳܣܶܒ݂ ܒܱ݁ܐܦܷ̈݁ܐ ܆ ܐܱܦܷ݁ܩ ܠܾܘܩܕ݂ܰܡ ܩܳܪܻܝܬܴ݁ܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܝܢܳܟ݂ ܆ ܘܗܳܝܕܷ݁ܝܢ ܢܶܬ݂ܒ݁ܚܰܪ ܠܴܟ݂ ܠܡܰܦܴ݁ܩܽܘ ܓܷ݁ܠܴܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܝܢܶܗ ܕܱ݁ܐܚܽܘܟ݂ ܀ 7 Μὴ κρίνετε, ἵνα μὴ κριθῆτε·* 2 ἐν ᾧ γὰρ κρίματι κρίνετε κριθήσεσθε,* καὶ ἐν ᾧ μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε ⸀μετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν. *3 Τί δὲ βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, τὴν δὲ ἐν τῷ σῷ ὀφθαλμῷ δοκὸν οὐ κατανοεῖς; 4 ἢ πῶς ⸀ἐρεῖς τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου· ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος ⸁ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σου, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἡ δοκὸς ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ˸;* 5 ὑποκριτά, ἔκβαλε πρῶτον ⸉ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ τὴν δοκόν⸊, καὶ τότε διαβλέψεις ἐκβαλεῖν τὸ κάρφος ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου.)
This sounds a lot like divine retribution. Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person or a group of people by a deity in response to some action. Many cultures have a story about how a deity exacted punishment upon previous inhabitants of their land, causing their doom. The major component of this is that this happens due to some form of injustice. Here Yeshua speaks of this in the opening verses saying Μὴ κρίνετε, ἵνα μὴ κριθῆτε “Judge not that you be not judged.” The verb κρίνω has a special meaning which attaches to its use in the context of decision making. The person who is able to discriminate and assess the various sides of an issue is suited to the task of passing judgment. Subsequently, κρίνω comes to occupy a major place in legal terminology, with such meanings as “to charge with a judicial offense, prosecute” and “to pass judgment.” The noun κρίσις means primarily “decision” or “judgment;” it too is often used as a legal term, sometimes with the sense “judicial trial.” We note how Yeshua couples this to the idea of ὑποκριτά hypocrisy. Hypocrisy is the act of pretending to be what one is not. Hypocrisy originated as a technical term in Greek drama that meant playing a part by an actor who in actuality bears no relation to the role itself. In the Scriptures, Yeshua condemned hypocrisy as the façade of goodness that a person uses to cover his or her true self-interested motives and sinfulness. (Matthew 6:1-5; 7:3-5) Taking these together, one pretending to be righteous turns and casts judgment upon another condemning him or her while the one who judges is doing the same thing in secret. We note that in the Tanakh, we are told that God comes to the aid of anyone who is suffering violence and injustice. This follows through from the promises of God for His chosen people, and the Lord guiding and directing their safety. These things are motivated by the Love and mercy of God of which the outcome is salvation. (Tehillim / Psalms 25:6–9 [Eng 24:6–9], 103:6–14 [Eng 102:6–14], Isaiah 30:18). Isaiah is making clear in his prophetic message that judgment and punishment are in context to God’s sovereign judgment. Paul writes that believers are to judge their own (see 1 Corinthians 5:12, 6:2) and to do so in truth and justice. Yeshua states that we are to live in truth and justice, and when injustice is done to us by our enemies, we are to show them love instead of judgment. The reason Yeshua said this is revealed in Paul’s words to the Romans in Romans 1-3, that all men fall under the wrath of God and are without excuse, and it is only by the mercy and grace of God which save us. The key point here is that nobody has the right to judge in matters of sin as we are all guilty in one way or another. The idea is that we are not to repay someone for what they have done to us, in the manner of retaliation (see Luke 6:32, 13:1-5, John 9:2-3). Yeshua taught these things to reveal to us how the word of God and our deeds, the things that we do are what brings judgment, and these things should move in our hearts to repentance (Luke 13:6-9) and turning from sin. This idea of the coming judgment seat of God advances this idea of justice and the consequences or outcome of our actions, whether they were for good, for the glory of God, or for selfish and personal means and sinful. The only way to escape judgment and condemnation is to be forgiven. And this is where the Messiah Yeshua enters into the equation, the righteous one of God, who received the punishment on our behalf so that we may be forgiven. This also reveals to us the reason why those who do not believe in Yeshua, or refuse His way of salvation through faith, will not escape condemnation and judgment! Both Ein Yaakov and Rashi write the following concerning these things.
Ein Yaakov (Glick Edition), Sotah 1:16
תניא היה ר׳ מאיר אומר מנין שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו שנאמר (ישעיה כז ח) בסאסאה בשלחה תריבנה אין לי אלא סאה מנין לרבות אפילו תרקב וחצי תרקב קב וחצי קב רובע וחצי רובע תומן ועוקלא ת״ל (שם ט ד) כל סאון סואן ברעש ומנין שכל פרוטה ופרוטה מצטרפין לחשבון גדול ת״ל (קהלת ז כז) אחת לאחת למצוא חשבון וכן מצינו בסוטה שבמדה שמדדה בה מדדו לה: (Fol. 8b) We are taught in a Baraitha, R. Maier was in the habit of saying, “Whence do we learn that the very same scale with which man measures others will be meted out to him [as he deals with others he will be dealt with]? It is said (Is. 27, 8) In full measure Thou sendest her away. Thou dost contend with her. This would prove only that the Lord measures by the S’ah [repays only great sins but overlooks the small ones.] Whence do we infer that even for a Tarkab, one-half of a Tarkab, one-half of a Kab, one-quarter of a Kab and one-eighth of a Kab and even smaller measures than these, that they are to be measured with the exact measure? It therefore says (Is. 9, 4) For all the weapons of the fighter in the battle’s tumult. And whence do we learn that each and every little crime is added unto the total account? It is therefore said (Ecc. 7, 27) Adding one thing to the other to find out the amount. And so also do we find in the case of a Sota that with the exact measures with which she measures others, is it measured out to her, etc.
Rashi on Isaiah 27,8 Parts 1-4
בסאסאה. באותה מדה: In that measure (בְּסַאסְּאָה) in that measure.
בשלחה תריבנה. כששילחה מצרים את ישראל תריבנה המדה בסאה שלה: when they sent them out, it strove with it When Egypt sent Israel out, it strove with it, the seah of the measure with its seah.
הגה ברוחו הקשה. הגה דבר בדבורו הקשה: He spoke with His harsh wind (הָגָה) He spoke with His harsh speech.
ביום קדים. ביום ויולך ה’ את הים ברוח קדים עזה (שמות י״ד:כ״א): on the day of the east wind On the day (concerning which Scripture states) (Ex. 14:21): “And the Lord led the sea with a strong east wind.”
Ein Yaakov speaks concerning the “scale with which man measures others will be meted out to him” and couples this to the idea of greater and lesser sins, and that the greater sins will not cause the lesser sins to be forgotten. All of one’s sins, even every little crime will be added unto the total account. This concept is connected to the idea of God knowing all that we have done and how there is no escape or way of twisting or spinning the law to circumvent a punishment, something that is so prevalent today in the earthly judicial court systems. The important point is that we are to be merciful, since having mercy is what God does on our behalf. The Lord God Almighty wants us to show mercy and kindness towards others, Isaiah, the rabbis, and Yeshua all draw out this point in relation to our being judged in the same manner, if we are unmerciful, so the Lord will be unmerciful to us! There appears to be a truth about our attitude, if one is cruel in life, then there is a spiritual outcome that in the same manner of one’s intentions towards others, the same measure will be used, this again is related to ὑποκριτά hypocrisy, etc. Rashi provides examples of this from the natural world. The first is to Egypt striving with Israel, and the same measure being meted back. Similarly, the ocean has the tendency to be rough and coarse, and likewise God led the sea with a strong wind to move the ocean in a coarse and rough way, according to the Torah account when the Lord God divided the Red Sea for Israel to pass through.
Isaiah continues saying the following, ט בְכֵין בְדָא יִשתַבקוּן חֹובֵי בֵית יַעְקֹב וְדֵין כָל עוּבָדֵי אַסטָיוּת חֹובֹוהִי בְשַוָיוּתֵיה כָל אַבנֵי אֵיגֹורָא כְאַבנֵי גִיר מְנֻפָצָן לָא יִתקַייְמוּן אְשֵירַיָא וַחְנִסנְסַיָא׃ 27:9 By this, therefore, shall the sins of the house of Jacob be forgiven; and thus it shall be with all the works of the perverseness of their sins, namely, that they shall make all the stones of the (idolatrous) altar like chalk stones that are beaten asunder; the groves and the sun-images shall not be raised up again. (TgJ) Here the redemption of Jacob or Israel found in the forgiveness of sins, is related to the people destroying their idols, the altars, the groves, and the places of the worship of false gods. Jewish commentators write the following concerning these things.
Duties of the Heart, Seventh Treatise on Repentance 2:3
(2) One who repents in his heart and in deed. His understanding stands up to his evil inclination. He trains himself to discipline his inward being, and fight its lusts until he defeats it and restrains it from what is hateful to the Creator. But his inner being always desires to draw him to the opposite of the service of G-d, and longs to do transgressions. He exerts himself to restrain it. Sometimes he defeats it, sometimes it defeats him. This person is not complete in the way of repentance. It will not secure an atonement, until he renounces the sins completely, as written: “Therefore by this the guilt of Jacob will be atoned for, and this will be the full fruit of the removal of his sin: when he makes all the stones of the altars like chalkstones crushed to pieces, no Asherim or incense altars will remain standing” (Yeshaya 27:9).
The commentary speaks to the inner war, the body wanting the desires of this world, and the spirit wanting the things of God. This has parallels to Paul’s writings to the Romans according to Romans 6-7. The rabbis speak to the effort one must exert in order to overcome these desires. The concept is found in training one’s self to discipline. This means that every day of our lives we need to be involved in training ourselves to be obedient, to listen to the call of God, to walk in the Spirit, etc. In addition to this, Paul wrote the following to Timothy according to 2 Timothy 1:7.
2 Timothy 1:7
1:7 For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind. (KJV, ܠܴܐ ܓܷ݁ܝܪ ܝܰܗ̄ܒ݂ ܠܱܢ ܐܱܠܴܗܳܐ ܪܾܘܚܳܐ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܶܚܠܬ݂ܴܐ ܆ ܐܷܠܴܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܝܠܴܐ ܁ ܘܰܕ݂ܚܽܘܒܴ݁ܐ ܂ ܘܰܕ݂ܡܰܪܬ݁ܝܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܴܐ ܂ 7 οὐ γὰρ ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα δειλίας ἀλλὰ δυνάμεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ.*)
Here the important point is that God is giving us some things, he does not give us fear, but of power, love, and a sound mind. It is interesting the Greek word σωφρονισμοῦ means “prudence or self control.” The Concise New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis writes that the words in this group normally refer to temperance and self-control (i.e., in connection with sexual passion; cf. Eurip. Iph. aul. 543–57, alongside μετρία, “moderation”). A person who rules others should be “temperate [σώφρονα] and master of himself, ruler of the pleasures and desires that are in himself” (Plato Gorg. 491d–e). As such, σωφροσύνη was counted among the four cardinal virtues (the others being wisdom, courage, and justice, e.g., Plato Resp. 427e). In Stoic doctrine these were expanded into subordinate virtues intended to give precision and concreteness (such as discipline, obedience, decency, propriety, modesty, and temperance; see U. Luck in TDNT 7:1098–1100). In the LXX σωφροσύνη occurs 9x, σώφρων 8x, and the adv. σωφρόνως once. Most of the occurrences are found in 4 Maccabees (14x), a book heavily influenced by Hellenistic thought. Worthy of note is Wisdom 8:7, which alludes to the four cardinal virtues: “If anyone loves righteousness, / her [i.e., Wisdom’s] labors are virtues; / for she teaches self-control [σωφροσύνη] and prudence, / justice and courage; / nothing in life is more profitable for mortals than these” (NRSV). This Greek word σωφρονισμοῦ speaks to what the rabbis are drawing out in their commentary, that self-discipline is very important and necessary, that one would train his or herself to be obedient to God’s word. This is what the book of Isaiah is speaking of according to the TgJ of the redemption of Jacob or Israel found in the forgiveness of sins, is connected to the people destroying their idols, the altars, the groves, and the places of the worship of false gods. The NT text draws these truths into our present-day relationship with the Lord. According to Isaiah, we are called to turn from our sinful ways, to remove the idols that we have set up in our lives that take the place of God.
Isaiah continues saying, י אְרֵי קַרתָא דַהְוָת כְרִיכָא בִלחֹודַה תִיתֵיב תְהֵי רְטִישָא וּשבִיקָא כְמַדבְרָא בַה יְגִיחוּן צַדִיקַיָא וְיִבְזוּן יָת נִכסַהָא וּיסוּפָן מַשרְיָתַהָא מִלְמִפַק׃ 27:10 But the city that was fortified shall sit solitary: she shall totter, and be forsaken like a desert; the just shall wage war against her, and plunder her treasures, and make an end of her hosts, so that none shall go forth. יא יִתקְצַר חֵילְהֹון יִבַהתוּן בְעוּבָדֵיהֹון יִתַברוּן נְשַיָא עָלִין לְבֵית דַחלַתהֹון וּמַלְפָן יָתְהֹון אְרֵי לָא עַם סֻכלְתָן אִנוּן עַל כֵין לָא יְרַחֵים עְלֵיהֹון דַעְבַדִינוּן וְדִי בְרָנוּן לָא יְחוּס עְלֵיהֹון׃ 27:11 Their armies shall be cut off; and they shall be confounded on account of their works, which shall be broken: women shall enter the house of their idolatry, and teach them, because they are a people of no understanding: therefore He that made them shall not have mercy on them, and He that created them shall show them no favour. יב וִיהֵי בְעִדָנָא הַהוּא יִתרְמֹון קְטִילִין קֳדָם יוי מִכֵיף נַהרָא פְרָת עַד נַחלָא דְמִצרָיִם וְאַתוּן תִתקָרְבוּן חַד לִסטַר חַד בְנֵי יִשרָאֵל׃ 27:12 And it shall come to pass at that time, that the slain of the Lord shall be cast from the bank of the river Euphrates into the river of Egypt; and ye shall be brought near one to the other, O ye sons of Israel. יג וִיהֵי בְעִדָנָא הַהוּא יִתְקַע בְשֹופָרָא רַבָא וְיֵיתֹון דִגלֹו לְאַרעָא דְאַתוּר וּדאִטַלטַלוּ לְאַרעָא דְמִצרָיִם וְיִסגְדוּן קֳדָם יוי בְטוּרָא דְקוּדשָא בִירוּשלַם׃ 27:13 And it shall come to pass at that time, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come, who had gone into captivity into the land of Assyria, and those who were cast into the land of Egypt, and they shall worship before the Lord, in the holy mountain at Jerusalem. (TgJ) Here the TgJ speaks to the redemption of God’s people, and of the great trumpet being blown and those who are in captivity will be set free and return to the Land to worship at God’s holy mountain. The rabbinic commentary Peninei Halakhah, Days of Awe 7:15 Part 6 interprets these things in the following way.
Peninei Halakhah, Days of Awe 7:15 Part 6
The Sages tell us that good things happen as a result of prostration: Avraham returned unharmed from Mount Moriah together with Yitzḥak only in the merit of his prostration, as we read, “We will worship (ve-nishtaḥaveh) and we will return to you” (Bereishit 22:5). Israel was redeemed from slavery only in the merit of their prostration, as we read, “When they heard that the Lord had taken note of the Israelites and that He had seen their plight, they bowed low in homage (ya-yikdu va-yishtaḥavu)” (Shemot 4:31). The Torah was given only in the merit of prostration, as we read, “Then He said to Moshe, ‘Come up to the Lord, with Aharon, Nadav and Avihu, and seventy elders of Israel, and bow low from afar’” (ibid. 24:1). Ḥanna was remembered only in the merit of prostration, as we read, “And they bowed low there before the Lord” (1 Shmuel 1:28). Only in the merit of prostration will the exiles will be gathered in, as we read, “And on that day, a great ram’s horn shall be sounded; and the strayed who are in the land of Assyria and the expelled who are in the land of Egypt shall come and worship (ve-hishtaḥavu) the Lord on the holy mount in Jerusalem” (Yeshayahu 27:13). The Temple will be rebuilt only in the merit of prostration, as we read, “Exalt the Lord our God and bow down to His footstool; He is holy!” (Tehilim 99:5). The dead will be brought back to life only in the merit of prostration, as we read, “Come, let us bow down and kneel (nishtaḥaveh ve-nikhra’a), bend the knee before the Lord our Maker” (ibid. 95:6). (Bereishit Rabba 56:6)
Here the commentary speaks to the merit of prostration. This is the idea of being humble before God, of recognizing His glory and His power to deliver men, women, and children, with the example given from the Exodus. Coupled with this idea of the shofar being blown and the people returning to worship the Lord, the rabbis suggest that this shofar sound of the call of God and release is so powerful, that even the dead will be released from death, the dead will be brought back to life so they can live and worship the Lord, kneeling and seeking the Lord in humbleness of heart! Yeshua said in Mark 9:35 that if we want to be first, we must make ourselves last, if we exalt ourselves, we will be humbled and if we humble ourselves, we will be exalted. This again is the concept of putting others first and is connected to mercy and justice as we have been discussing previously. What Yeshua is saying is that if we put others first, then God can work with our humility to raise us up and that we should allow the Lord to raise us up and not try to do so on our own means. When we live humble lives and walk in God’s ways of mercy, truth, and justice, we will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous. What we are seeing here is that humility is the means to advancement, wisdom and the resurrection of the righteous. Yeshua’s message is clear, and is consistent with the rabbinic opinion, that it is humility that makes us approachable, teachable and connectable not just to others but also to our Father in heaven. The humble will be trusted more than those who are proud and boastful. For example, if we act from power being ruthless with others, the Lord God will not give us more. But if we are humble and merciful, we can be trusted, and the Lord God will know we will use what He has given us wisely. So, the Lord God Almighty not only rewards us in the resurrection of the righteous through His gift of righteousness, in this life here on earth we are trusted with more, and the Lord knows that we will do His will to further advance the mission of Yeshua, to speak of the power and mercy of God to forgive sins, and to become the children of God!