Physicists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have developed a new prototype radar that uses quantum entanglement as a method of object detection. This technique uses “Quantum Illumination” by entangling “signal idler” photon pairs used to boost the detection efficiency of low reflectivity objects in environments with bright thermal noise. The use for such technology is in the biomedical application. Biomedical scanning, low power, short range radar, is a noninvasive technology. The researchers used quantum illumination technique at microwave frequencies. The experiments were conducted by constructing the device to illuminate a room temperature object at a distance of 1 meter in a free space detection setup.
- S. Barzanjeh, S. Pirandola, D. Vitali, J. M. Fink, “Microwave quantum illumination using a digital receiver,” Science Advances 08 May 2020, Vol 6, Issue 19, eabb0451, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb0451,
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon whereby two particles remain interconnected, sharing physical traits regardless of the distance between the particles. These scientists have demonstrated a new type of detection technology at microwave frequency, that utilizes entangled microwave photons as a method of detection. The quantum radar is able to detect objects in noisy thermal environments where classical radar systems often fail. The principles behind the device are based upon the quantum entanglement technology. Instead of using conventional microwaves, researchers used entangled photons, which were labeled “signal” and “idler” photons. This quantum technology can outperform classical low power radar. The advantages of the quantum entanglement approach is overcoming the typical poor sensitivity of conventional radar systems. The typical radar systems have trouble distinguishing the radiation reflected from the object from the background radiation (thermal radiation). The quantum entanglement offers the improved signal sensitivity making this technology more effective to distinguish the signal photons that are received from the object in space as opposed to the photons being generated by the environment. This is an interesting development that was made based upon basic science research. Basic science research is one of the key drivers for innovation when difficult problems need solved. In order for this technology to be developed, there had to be collaboration among theoretical and experimental physicists being given a problem to solve using their knowledge of quantum mechanics to push the limits of sensing technology to greater and greater levels of sensitivity. This scientific research was a proof of concept work! There still remains a lot of work to be done in order to bring the quantum radar to real-world detection tasks.
In this work, the researchers implemented a digital version of the phase-conjugate receiver. Phase conjugation is an interesting wave phenomenon in which both the direction of propagation and the overall phase factor for each arbitrary plane wave are precisely reversed during reflection from a phase conjugate mirror. The study used a Josephson parametric converter (JPC) inside a dilution refrigerator for entanglement generation. (Note, A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region. The cooling power is provided by the heat of mixing of the Helium-3 and Helium-4 isotopes. This is defined by the enthalpy of mixing in chemical thermodynamics.) The generated signal microwave mode, with annihilation operator aˆS, is amplified to facilitate its detection and sent to probe a room-temperature target, while the idler mode aˆI is measured. The reflection from the target aˆR is also detected, and the two measurement results are post processed to calculate the Signal to noise ratio (SNR) in order to determine the presence or absence of the object. The experimental implementation of the quantum illumination technique relies on linear quadrature measurements and suitable post processing to compute all covariance matrix elements from the full measurement record, as shown in previous microwave quantum optics experiments with linear detectors. This enables an implementation of the phase-conjugate receiver that fully exploits the correlations of the JPC output fields without analog photodetection. The researchers then compared the SNR with other detection strategies for the same signal path, i.e., the same signal photon numbers at the JPC output, which is also the reference point for the theoretical modeling.
The Spiritual Insights that we receive from this type of work is analogous to the improved signal sensitivity and quantum entanglement. Consider the following words from the Torah:
Shemot / Exodus 34:28-35
34:28 So he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread or drink water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments. 34:29 It came about when Moses was coming down from Mount Sinai (and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses’ hand as he was coming down from the mountain), that Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because of his speaking with Him. 34:30 So when Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to come near him. 34:31 Then Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the rulers in the congregation returned to him; and Moses spoke to them. 34:32 Afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them to do everything that the Lord had spoken to him on Mount Sinai. 34:33 When Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face. 34:34 But whenever Moses went in before the Lord to speak with Him, he would take off the veil until he came out; and whenever he came out and spoke to the sons of Israel what he had been commanded, 34:35 the sons of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face shone. So Moses would replace the veil over his face until he went in to speak with Him. (NASB, כח וַיְהִי-שָׁם עִם-יְהֹוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל-הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶֹרֶת הַדְּבָרִים: כט וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד-מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן-הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא-יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ: ל וַיַּרְא אַהֲרֹן וְכָל-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל אֶת-מֹשֶׁה וְהִנֵּה קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו וַיִּירְאוּ מִגֶּשֶׁת אֵלָיו: לא וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל-הַנְּשִֹאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם: לב וְאַחֲרֵי-כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָֹה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי: [מפטיר] לג וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל-פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה: לד וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָֹה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת-הַמַּסְוֶה עַד-צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה: לה וְרָאוּ בְנֵי-יִשְֹרָאֵל אֶת-פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת-הַמַּסְוֶה עַל-פָּנָיו עַד-בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ:)
We are told in the Torah the more time Moshe spent with God upon the mountain, the more he reflected God’s glory, his face shown with the glory of God. This is a concept that Paul draws out while speaking to the Corinthians saying, Romans 8:29 “For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.” (NASB) In addition to this, we read according to Bereshit / Genesis 1:26-28, “Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.” (NASB, כו וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶֹה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל-הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל-הָרֶמֶשֹ הָרֹמֵשֹ עַל-הָאָרֶץ: כז וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים | אֶת-הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם: כח וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת-הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל-חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶֹת עַל-הָאָרֶץ:) Man was created in the image and likeness of God, so we can relate, respond and have fellowship with Him. Man was created in the image of God so that he can reflect God’s attributes here on earth. Reflect His love, His glory and His holiness, this is analogous to the reflected signal (aˆR) in the scientific research. Quantum entanglement is necessary for the sensitivity to improve, this is analogous to our being “in the Lord” having faith, and receiving His Spirit making our ability to reflect God’s glory and His Love possible in our lives! Notice the parallel here to Shemot / Exodus 34 in Paul’s speaking about those who He calls, Romans 8:30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. (NASB) John wrote these words in this way saying, 1 John 3:2 Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is. (NASB) The parallel to quantum entanglement is to become like something, we are becoming like our God who is holy, righteous, and just. Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon whereby two particles remain interconnected, sharing physical traits regardless of the distance between the particles. This is what is happening to God’s children, to those who have His Spirit dwelling within!
The opening passages of the Bible (the Torah) has a declaration which states, “In the beginning Elohim created” (בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלהִים). Reading the Hebrew text, the word Elohim (אֱלהִים) is written in the plural form (as opposed to the singular form אֵל, God). The plural form here does not suggest that there is more than one Creator. The reason being, the verb for created (bara,בָּרָא) is written in the singular form causing the reading of the text to say “He [singular] created.” The Shema (Devarim / Deuteronomy 6:4) clearly states that God is one (יְהוָה אֶחָד). The word echad (one, אֶחָד) contains a deeper message, one that is more than numerical identity. Etymologically, the word echad is related to the word yachad (yachid יָחִיד), together. When it is used for two people, like a man and a woman, it signifies their action of becoming one, not a static or passive unity. (i.e. a certain man: איש אחד, or one day: יום אחד) These facts point to the unfathomable mystery of the Name of God (YHVH) which denotes in the One Creator all the powers and influences by which the universe was first created and now is governed and sustained. The NT attests that Yeshua is the Source of all life in the universe saying, כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים נִהְיוּ עַל־יָדוֹ, “All things were made by Him” (John 1:3). The “Word made flesh” is a way of describing the “image of the invisible God” and the “radiance of the glory of God” and “the exact imprint (χαρακτήρ, ‘character’) of his nature” (Colossians 1:15, Hebrews 1). We are told in Hebrews 1:3 that all of creation is held in place by His power, and were created for Him and by Him and all things consist or hold together (συνεστηκεν, Colossians 1:16-17). This is what is being drawn out from the Scientific research on entanglement, quantum radar, and the radiance of God shining from the face of Moshe and in the book of John which describes the Word made flesh is the image of the invisible God and the radiance of His glory. There are attributes that the Lord God of Israel wants to give His people, and this is achieved through the indwelling of His Holy Spirit by our faith. Both the Torah and the NT attest to these things!
These things speak to our giving of ourselves to the Lord to do His will and submit to His Word, which is illustrated from the Torah in the trees God placed in the Garden of Eden. Note something here, in the opening chapters of the Torah (in Bereshit / Genesis), we are told about only two trees in the garden. This is meant to teach us that man was able to find what he needed in the garden. He who seeks the tree of life finds it there. He who seeks the tree of the knowledge of good and evil also finds it in the garden. This speaks to us that we are set on a path to make a choice between two roads, (i) one that follows truth, life, goodness, and love, or (ii) one that follows evil, ungodliness, immorality, etc. One path leads to happiness in fellowship with God, the other leads to sorrows and destruction. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil functioned as a test for Adam and Eve to see whether they would choose obedience to God’s moral authority as King and Lord over their lives. Of course, they chose to disobey and failed the test, and then were forced to deal with the consequences of their decisions. This prevented them from partaking in the tree of life, and they were cast into exile. (see Bereshit / Genesis 3:22-24) In this situation, Adam and Eve did not reflect the glory of God. The message from this story is that this was not the end of the story since God provided for them clothes to wear demonstrating the principle of sacrifice (a life for a life) in the process of the forgiveness of sins. Ultimately, these things led to the Lord God sending His Son to reverse the curse that was brought by the first Adam (Galatians 3:13). The promised seed of the woman (Bereshit / Genesis 3:15) would redeem humanity from the penalty of death. (Romans 5:12-21) The character of God established the solution before the plague meaning that it was His love for us that is the foundation of all things (עוֹלָם חֶסֶד יִבָּנֶה) which is the meaning of the psalmists words from Tehillim / Psalms 89:2 “his steadfast love built the world.” In addition, these things may be the source texts for Peter and Paul’s conclusion of the “Lamb that was slain from the foundation of the world” (1 Peter 1:20, Ephesians 1:4) and from John’s vision (Revelation 13:8, 17:8). The scientific research draws out the concept of reflectance and detection, which parallels the idea that because of the salvation that is given to us in Yeshua the Messiah, Paul wrote “Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven.” (1 Corinthians 15:49) There is a duality of function here, with the later, the Spiritual or Heavenly influence overcomes the image of man we are born with. Because of Yeshua, we are able to reflect the glory of God, we are able to overcome the world, and because of Yeshua’s victory over sin and death, we are able to eat of the promised tree of life in the garden (paradise) of God! (Revelation 2:7, 22:14)