Constraining Quantum Gravity and String Theory – A Spiritual Insight

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Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 and lived until April 18, 1955. He was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics alongside quantum mechanics. His work was known for its influence on the philosophy of science and he is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc^2, which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation.” One of the outcomes of this great theoretical physicist was his theories that the speed of light, and the laws of physics, appear to be the same for all observers in the Universe. This means that regardless of where one is located in the Universe, what direction one is moving, or at what time one performs a measurement, everyone experiences the same fundamental rules of physics. This is defined by what is called the Lorentz invariance which expresses the proposition that the laws of physics are the same for different observers, for example, an observer at rest on Earth or one who is rotated through some angle, or traveling at a constant speed relative to the observer at rest. Physics is the branch of science that deals with the structure of matter and its fundamental properties. Physics is designed to understand how every physical system behaves, whether on a macroscale, microscale, or quantum scale, how each functions and continues to exist. Einstein taught that the laws of physics need to apply universally, meaning that they all must work for all particles and fields in all locations at all times.

The most successful physical theories to date are the quantum field theories that describe interactions with fundamental particles, and General Relativity, which describes spacetime and gravity. Within this framework of physics, a principle that exists that must apply to all things, this is known as a fundamental symmetry, known as Charge, Parity, and Time reversal (CPT) symmetry. The CPT theorem appeared for the first time, implicitly, in the work of Julian Schwinger in 1951 to prove the connection between spin and statistics. In 1954, Gerhart Lüders and Wolfgang Pauli derived more explicit proofs of the theorem, so this theorem is sometimes known as the Lüders–Pauli theorem. The CPT symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws that consists of operations or transformations of charge conjugation (C), parity transformation (P), and time reversal (T). CPT is the only combination of C, P, and T that is observed to be an exact symmetry of nature at the fundamental level. What does that mean? In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged after some transformation. The CPT theorem says that CPT symmetry holds for all physical phenomena, or more precisely, that any Lorentz invariant local quantum field theory with a Hermitian Hamiltonian must have CPT symmetry.

There are models that go beyond the “Standard Physics” model and “General Relativity.” Such a model is called “string theory,” where under this theory, quantum gravity may break this fundamental symmetry constraint. A recent publication in the Journal Physical Review Letters [1] reports new constraints on the Lorentz invariance violation, with fascinating implications for theoretical physics.

Reference

  1. A. Albert et al. (HAWC Collaboration), “Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from HAWC Observations of Gamma Rays above 100 TeV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 131101 – Published 30 March 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.131101

The best theory that describes the function of the Universe is the “Standard Model” which describes the fundamental particles, nuclear, electromagnetic interactions, and General Relativity which is Einstein’s theory of spacetime and gravity. As these two theories do very well in describing these things, the one thing they do not describe is how gravity behaves at a quantum level. Scientists are thinking (theorizing) and searching very hard to determine whether there exists a quantum theory of gravity, and how this theory fits into the existing set of theories that describe the universe. The hope is to have a unified field theory which places all of these theories under one framework. The problem is under string theory, quantum gravity is capable of breaking the fundamental symmetry which is required for both the Standard Model and General Relativity.

Thus far, we have determined that the Standard Model is exactly Lorentz invariant, and so is the theory of General Relativity. What happens is when putting a theory together that describes quantum gravity, the equations describe new physics that appear at high-energy scales that suggest a break in the Lorentz Invariance theorem is possible. When trying to observe experimentally these high-energy physics, scientists use the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator to generate energies in the range of 10^15 and 10^19 GeV where the known laws of physics presently break down. Scientists also have another method for observing high energy physics by observing protons as they travel throughout the universe. If Lorentz invariance is required for all things in Physics, meaning that it is an exact symmetry, then “all photons of all energies” should propagate through the Universe, even across cosmic distances, equally. But if there are any violations of this symmetry, even if it’s at ultra-high energy scales well beyond the energy of those photons, then photons above a particular energy threshold should decay away. Under our current understanding of particle physics, the particle interactions must conserve both energy and momentum. For example, two photons can spontaneously interact and create what is called an electron-positron pair. Only one proton however cannot do that on its own. This is where the conservation of energy comes into play, there is the need for that additional particle to make the electron-positron pair. Now, if the Lorentz Invariance is violated, then we do not need to conserve momentum exactly, only approximately. This means if new physics is at work at some very high energy scale, there is the probability that this violation could also occur at lower energy scales. The “not exactly approximation” may be very small, but over thousands of light years or more, the probability of this occurring will drop to zero. Astronomers today use the “High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory” (HAWC) to measure high-energy gamma-ray photons. These observations made by the HAWC are in the energy range that is 10 to 100 TeV higher than the LHC, meaning these measurements are 100 times the proton energies that the LHC can produce. This astronomical observed data can provide the best evidence for the Lorentz Invariance violations, if they exist.

In the recent publication [1], the HAWC observatory data was reported to have detected a large number of these high-energy protons that are coming from four sources in the Milky Way galaxy. These energy sources correspond to a pulsar wind nebulae, the remnants of supernovae that accelerate material from the surrounding matter-rich regions. The idea is when observing these photons, there needs to be a continuous spectrum that is observed if the Lorentz Invariance holds. This means there will not be an energy-cutoff (drop in energy or falloff) in the energy spectrum. If the Lorentz Invariance is violated, then above a certain threshold, the number of photons will drop to zero or fifty percent of the scale, (i.e. the formation of electron-positron pair by the not exactly approximation) depending upon the type of interactions that are taking place that violate the symmetry theorem. “What the Scientists observed was absolutely no violation of symmetry was occurring at all!” What is fascinating about these results is that this sets a limit on the energy scale at which Lorentz invariance violation is allowed to take place. Based on the latest HAWC results, we can conclude that there are no violations of this symmetry up to an energy scale of 2.2 × 10^31 eV: nearly 2,000 times the Planck energy scale.

This is a significant finding, more importantly, this reveals to us if there is a symmetry violation in Physics, it will occur at a much higher energy scale than string theory, quantum gravity, or any such exotic model that is beyond-the-Standard Model physics describes. Future tests will need to go higher in energy to prove no violation exists, this would provide tighter constraints on the Lorentz Invariance. What this teaches us is that these photon-based constraints must be included in new theories on quantum gravity such as string theory where Lorentz Invariance must apply and no violation can exist. What this means is that this constraint must apply, and so any new physical theories must include this constraint or be ruled out as an invalid theory. Einstein was right, the laws of physics really are the same everywhere and at all times, and any extension to the Standard Model and General Relativity must reckon with these new, robust constraints.

The Spiritual Insights that we receive from this type of research is related to something God does in our lives and truth. We can most easily understand this by the common cultural belief that all religions worship the same God, but just in a different way. This concept that all beliefs should be tolerated and that the truth of the bible is ignorant, is more prevalent than we realize. Many today accept the idea that we all worship the same God just in different ways. This conclusion is based upon not just having a poor working knowledge of the Torah, the Tanach, and the Apostolic Writings, but also not knowing what different religions actually believe. A few examples, Buddhism denies the existence of a personal god, and Hinduism believes in many gods. Mormonism is also a polytheistic religion, though Mormons restrict their worship to only a few gods. When we consider the Torah’s account of God choosing for Himself a people, the Children of Israel were in the minority, we are told in Shemot / Exodus they were under persecution, and the surrounding culture involved idolatry, immorality, etc. In a similar way, the followers of Yeshua, believing in the God of Israel and in His Messiah, went out into a world where they were the minority, even amongst their own people. They went out in the midst of persecution, immorality, and idolatry, a Hellenistic culture. While traveling through the Hellenistic culture of their day, they proclaimed the One True God of Israel, and said exclusively that faith and faithfulness go hand in hand, and the Messiah, the anointed one of God, the Christ, was the only way of salvation for all people. (see Acts 8:5, 13:23–39, 16:30–31, 17:30–31, 20:21) The reason the anointed one (mashiach, מָשִׁיחַ, Messiah, χριστός, Christ) is so important, is in the Torah, Moshe foretold of the coming of the Messiah who would resemble him in many distinctive and remarkable ways. Where Moshe does this is in Devarim / Deuteronomy 18:15 where Moshe identifies the coming of the Messiah as “a Prophet like me.” This is the only place in the Torah where Moshe explicitly identifies himself as a prophet of the Lord God of Israel. Notice something from the NT where it is written about the soferim (scribes). In John chapter 1, we read how the scribes sent a delegation of men to question John the Baptist asking him two questions.

  • “Are you Elijah?” (John 1:21) This was a reference to Malachi’s prophecy (Malachi 4:5) which states that Elijah would come as a messenger before the appearance of the Messiah. This is one of the reasons why during the Passover Seder one sets a place and cup for Elijah, looking out the door for his coming in anticipation of his arrival as the forerunner of the Messiah.
  • “Are you the Prophet?” (John 1:21) The scribes asked this question based on this reference to what Moshe said concerning himself and the messiah that God would send “a Prophet like me” (Devarim / Deuteronomy 18:15-19).

According to John 1:45, Philip stated “We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” We also read following Yeshua having fed the five thousand, the people began to ask the question “is this the prophet who is to come into the world?” (John 6:14) Peter also identified Yeshua as the prophet in Acts 3:22-23, and when he stood before the Sanhedrin he stated “This is that Moses who said to the children of Israel, ‘The lord your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your brethren. Him you shall hear.'” (Acts 7:37-38). The ultimate goal of the redemption found in the Passover was to set us free to become a treasured people of God (עַם סְגֻלָּה, am segulah). We are to take that light of truth to the nations, as the Spirit of the Lord brings the “good news” of the power of God dwelling in the midst of His people. When Yeshua spoke about who he was, he recited the words for Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:18-19) that he would bring this good news to the poor, proclaiming victory, the victory of God’s redemption. The message of Yeshua always drew us back to the Torah, to the Anointed One of God, the sacrificial system, atonement in blood, the power of God in the midst of His people, etc. In the NT, we see the connection of the Messiah bearing the sins of the people. (see Vayikra / Leviticus 10:17 The priest who offers it shall eat it; it must be … The priest who offers the sacrifice as a sin offering must eat his portion in a … it is most holy, and God hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation.) These things from the Scripture provides us with enough information to see the parallel to the scientific research that describes the Lorentz invariant symmetry. When drawn in parallel to the ministry of Yeshua, we see how the Torah is a fundamental part of the gospel message! Any theology that teaches contrary to this, any religion that speaks against this is to be ruled out! The Torah functions as a constraint, just as this constraint of Lorentz invariance must apply to physics where any new physical theories must include this constraint or be ruled out as an invalid theory.

The Torah contains the good news of deliverance, redemption, of power, and the presence of God in the midst of His people! This is why we are told in the NT how the Messiah, what He did upon the cross, offered in sacrifice for our sins as the anointed one of God, and how this is good news concerning deliverance from the evil one (the devil), and from sickness, and death. In Luke 4, Yeshua quoting from Isaiah 61, we are told the Messiah was sent to “bind up” the wounds of the brokenhearted (נִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב). The Hebrew text states in Isaiah 61:1

Isaiah 61:1
א רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהֶוִֹה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהֹוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי-לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח-קוֹחַ:
The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners

The Hebrew verb chavash (חָבַשׁ), “to bind up,” can also mean “to govern” or “to restrain.” Notice how this is actually a constraint the Spirit of the Lord is doing, a parallel to the Lorentz invariance, Yeshua describes his mission, his purpose, his role to constrain the faithful one. This is drawn out from the Hebrew text where the Hebrew word “lev” (לב) from נִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב (brokenhearted) metaphorically refers to our inner life, that is, our affections, our mind, and our will. The Spirit of God works, constraining our lives, making us into the likeness of His Son Yeshua. (Note also how this parallels false religions in the sense of being taken from the analogy of the mathematical symmetry constraint. The mathematical symmetry is a mathematical operation, cannot be performed in a way that diverges from the definition (its function) itself meaning that one does not invent a new way to perform a rotation operation. For example, rotational symmetry is a rotation into an axis of symmetry, we learn a lot about this type of operation in molecular spectroscopy. Other religions are like performing a rotation of symmetry operation in a different way as opposed to rotating into an axis of symmetry. If one does not rotate into an axis of symmetry, it is not a symmetry operation that is allowable. The end result is a violation of the rule, and thus false, etc.) Concerning what Yeshua and the Spirit of the Lord God of Israel does related to the inner self, the heart (לב) may be revealed in the letters of the Hebrew word לב itself, where the Lamed (ל) depicts a “staff” used to direct something (i.e., the will or our own rule over our lives), and the Bet (בּ) depicts the “house” of the physical body. These things, the staff and the house represent our inner life of thought (our will) and feeling expressed in our actions (the house). Yeshua said He is putting a constraint upon His people. Note how the broken hearted, those who have suffered loss, hurt, pain, who have inwardly shattered lives, Yeshua comes to heal, to deliver, and the Spirit of God provides divine help. The ultimate healing comes only when we are led by faith in the Messiah Yeshua and only when this type of symmetry between the Torah and the gospel message is obeyed. (Note, the gospel message is something to be obeyed! See 2 Thessalonians 1:8, Romans 16:24-27) It is through Yeshua’s name that the Lord God of Israel proclaims liberty (דְּרוֹר) to the captives to set the prisoner free. This is the uniqueness of our God! The Hebrew phrase pekach-koach (פְּקַח־קוֹחַ) from Isaiah 61:1 indicates for us not merely the opening of prisons but of having a all encompassing liberty, complete and perfect redemption. The Torah and the Prophets coupled with the Gospel Message reveal to us the gospel is for the poor and lowly in spirit (Matthew 5:3, Isaiah 61:2) which is a message for sinners, and not for the self-righteous. The poor is a reference to utter helplessness, like a beggar who is in need and unable to help himself. This imagery is of being in poverty and in the sense of being dependent upon others for help. The poor in spirit are those who are in need of help from God. There is a divine pattern here, just as we see in the Lorentz Invariance constraint that is needed to prove the validity of a theorem in physics that describes the physical universe. There is a divine symmetry being laid out in the Scriptures, the Lord God Almighty has plainly stated that we must have a broken heart, a need for the Lord God to help, and seeking the constraint of God’s Spirit in our lives and with these things, and the presence of God in our lives, we are able to overcome sin in our lives.

In conclusion, we note exactly what Yeshua said in Luke 4:17-20, he quoted from Isaiah 61:1-2 but he only quoted half, he stopped half way, right after he read “to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor” and did not finish the verse. This is a significant point. The remainder of the verse said the following, וְי֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם לֵאלֹהֵ֑ינוּ לְנַחֵ֖ם כָּל־אֲבֵלִֽים׃ “… And a day of vindication by our God; To comfort all who mourn—” לָשׂ֣וּם ׀ לַאֲבֵלֵ֣י צִיּ֗וֹן לָתֵת֩ לָהֶ֨ם פְּאֵ֜ר תַּ֣חַת אֵ֗פֶר שֶׁ֤מֶן שָׂשׂוֹן֙ תַּ֣חַת אֵ֔בֶל מַעֲטֵ֣ה תְהִלָּ֔ה תַּ֖חַת ר֣וּחַ כֵּהָ֑ה וְקֹרָ֤א לָהֶם֙ אֵילֵ֣י הַצֶּ֔דֶק מַטַּ֥ע יְהוָ֖ה לְהִתְפָּאֵֽר׃ “To provide for the mourners in Zion— To give them a turban instead of ashes, The festive ointment instead of mourning, A garment of splendor instead of a drooping spirit. They shall be called terebinths of victory, Planted by the LORD for His glory.” The reason Yeshua stopped short was because he had come to proclaim the favor of the Lord (the year of the Lord’s will, שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן) as Redeemer, Savior, and Lord. The Messiah comes to set us free, and this is the only way one may be saved. In the end of days, Yeshua will establish the Kingdom of God on earth, on that great day of vengeance, the day of the Lord! This day is fast approaching! As we have studied here, there is a symmetry constraint in physics, and the Bible also describes a divine symmetry constraint requiring faith in Yeshua, and in all of God’s Word, from the Torah, the Prophets, the Writings, and the Apostolic Writings. These truths speak to us the need for faith in Yeshua, and it is indeed interesting the parallels we find when we study the scientific research alongside the Scriptures!

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Duane D. Miller received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. Degree in Chemical Engineering from The University of Akron Ohio. He is currently a Chemical Engineering Researcher. Duane’s research expertise has focused upon functional materials development for the control, conversion, and release of process gases in Energy production technologies. His R&D interests include computational chemistry, developing novel technologies for converting biomass to fuels and studying their fundamental interactions during the chemical conversion process. His past experience includes sorbent development for pre- and post-combustion CO2 and SO2 capture, selective absorption of H2S from methane streams, O2 capture for oxy-fuel combustion, photocatalytic reduction of alcohols, NOx reduction catalysis, the development of oxygen carriers to combust fossil fuels (CH4 and coal) for the chemical looping combustion processes, and the extraction of rare earth elements using patent pending sorbents. His research expertise has focused on operando-characterization using Infrared, Raman, and UV-Vis spectroscopy to observe the nature of the catalytic active sites and reaction intermediates under realistic reaction conditions, allowing direct correlation of molecular/electronic structures with catalyst performance during Gas-Solid / Liquid-Solid Adsorption and Photocatalytic Processes with real time online analysis of reaction products using ICP-MS and mass spectrometry. His current work involves a multi-disciplinary approach to developing, understanding, and improving the catalytic gasification of coal and methane, high temperature chemical looping combustion, and the catalytic decomposition and gasification of biomass and coal using novel microwave reactor.​ He has been studying the Hebrew Scriptures and the Torah for 20+ years and sharing what he has learned. The studies developed for MATSATI.COM are freely to be used by everyone, to God be the Glory!

1 COMMENT

  1. […] This week’s study titled “Constraining Quantum Gravity and String Theory” draws out a very interesting spiritual insight which is paralleled to a fundamental principle called the Lorentz Invariance. The Lorentz Invariance expresses the proposition that the laws of physics are the same for different observers, regardless of whether an observer is at rest on Earth or one who is rotated through some angle, or traveling at a constant speed relative to the observer at rest. This proposition places a constraint on high energy theoretical physics, and the weird physics that may occur at extreme energy levels. The Hebrew scriptures, interestingly enough, reveals a parallel to the scientific research on how God Himself constrains us in the sense that our lives are bound up in the Messiah, governed by Him, according to His Word. Based upon the prophetic word Yeshua reads from the book of Isaiah, he describes his mission, his purpose, his role is to constrain the faithful one. The scientific research draws out a very interesting principle that is unique to our God who is Lord over all! Read Study here […]

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